• One task of biological anthropology is to make sense out of data on human variation.
◦ What is the pattern of variation within a population?
◦ What is the pattern of variation between populations?
◦ What is the explanation for the observed patterns of variation?
• Antibody: a substance that reacts to other substances invading the body
• Antigen:Asubstance invading the body that stimulates the production of antibodies.
• Electrophoresis: a laboratory method that uses electric current to separate proteins, allowing
genotype to be determined.
• Human LeukocyteAntigen System (HLA):Adiverse genetic system consisting of linked loci
on chromosome 6 that control autoimmune response.
• Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP):Agenetic trait defined in terms of the
length of DNAfragments produced when certain enzymes cut the DNAseqence.
• Micro-satellite DNA: Repeated short sequence of DNA; the number of repeats is highly
• Alue Insertion:Asequence of DNArepeated at different locations on different chromosomes.
• Single-nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs): Specific positions in a DNAsequence that differ at
one base. For example, the DNAsequence CCTGAAand CCCGAAdiffer in the third positi