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ANP 201 (11)
Chapter 16

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Michigan State University
ANP 201

Chapter 16 • Stress:Any factor that interferes with the normal limits of operation of an organism. • Homeostasis: In a physiologic sense, the maintenance of normal limits of body functioning. • Acclimation: short-term physiologic responses to a stress, usually within minutes or hours. (sweating when hot) • Acclimatization: Long-term physiologic responses to a stress, usually taking from days to months. (increase in red blood cell production after moving to a high-altitude environment) • Developmental acclimatization: Changes in organ or body structure that occur during the physical growth of any organism. (an increase in chest size that occurs when a person moves to a high-altitude) • Plasticity: The ability of an organism to respond physiologically or developmentally to environmental stress. • Vasoconstriction: The narrowing of blood vessels, which reduces blood flow and heat loss. • Vasodilation: The opening of blood vessels, which increases blood flow and heat loss. • The body loses heat in four ways: ◦ Radiation: heat flow from objects in the form of electromagnetic radiation. The body removes heat through radiation but also picks up heat radiated by other objects. ◦ Convection: the removal or gain of heat through air molecules. Heat flows from a warm object to a cooler object. ◦ Conduction: heat exchange through physical contact with another object, such as the ground or clothes. ◦ Evaporation: loss of heat through the conversion of water to vapor.(Sweat). This is the only one of
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