Chapter 10 Vocab (book)
• Pliocene Epoch: The fifth epoch of the CenozoicAra, dating from 5.3 million to 1.8 million
years ago. Numerous species of hominins evolved during the Pliocene, including the first
members of the genus Homo by the end of the epoch.
• Pleistocene epoch: The sixth epoch of the Cenozoic era, dating from 1.8 million to 10,000 years
ago. Several species of the genus Homo evolved during the Pleistocene, including the first
modern humans, Homo Sapiens.
• Cranial Capacities:Ameasurement of the interior volume of the brain case measured in cubic
centimeters and used as an approximate estimate of brain size.
• Sahelanthropus Tchadensis:An early possible honinin species fromAfrica, dating between 6
million and 7 million years ago, that has a number of hominin dental traits and may have been
• Foramen Magnum: The large opening at the base of the skill where the spinal cord enters. This
opening is located more toward the center of the skill in hominins, who are bipeds, so that the
skull sits atop the spine.
• Orrorin Tugenensis:An early, primitive hominin species fromAfrica, dating to the Late
• Ardipithecus Ramidus:An early primitive hominin species fromAfrica, dating between 5.8
million and 4.4 million years ago.
• Ardipithecus Kadabba:An early primitive hominin fromAfrica with very ape like teeth, dating
between 5.8 and 5.2 million years ago.
• Australopithecus:Agenus of fossil hominin that lived between 4.2 and 1.4 million years ago
and is characterized by bipedal locomotion, small brain size, large face, and large teeth.
• Australopithecus Anamensis:Ahominin species that lived in EastAfrica between 4.2 and 3.9
million years ago. It was a biped but had many primitive apelike features of the skull and teeth.
• Australopithecus Afarensis:Aprimitive hominin found in EastAfrica, dating between 3.7 and