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Chapter 2

Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules and Ions

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Michigan State University
CEM 151

241 amu166054 X 10gChapter 2 Atoms Molecules and Ions23Tuesday June 10 2014153 PM1 g602214 X 10amuLaw of Conservation of MassAntoine LavoisierLaw of Conservation of MatterThe total mass of materials present after a chemical reaction is the same as the total mass present before the reactionLaw of Constant CompositionJoseph ProustLaw of definite proportionsIn a given compound the relative numbers and the kinds of atoms are constantAll samples of a given compound regardless of their source or how they were prepared have the same proportions of their constituent elementsLaw of Multiple ProportionsJohn DaltonIf two elements A and B combine to form more than one compound then the mass of B which combines the mass of A is a ratioof small whole numbersAtomic StructureIsotopeProtons found in the nucleus have a positive charge equal in magnitude to the electrons negative chargeIsotopes are atoms with the same atomic number 19Charge 160 X 10but different mass numberHave same number of protonsCoulombs 1Have different number of neutronsElectronsfound outside the nucleus take up most of the volume of the atom have a negative charge19Are identified by their mass numberCharge 160 X 10Have different massesCoulombs 1Ions31Mass 911 X 10kgWhen atoms or molecules gain or lose electrons they become ionsNeutrons found in the nucleus virtually same mass as proton but no chargeAtoms lose or gain electrons to the nearest noble gasMass 167 X 10 27 kg1 amuCationsare positively charged ions and are formed by elements on the left side of the periodic tableDaltons Atomic TheoryAnionsare negatively charged ions and are formed by elements on Thomsons Model the right side of the periodic tableCathode Ray Tube Glass tube containing metal electrodes from which almost all the air has been evacuatedCathode Rays were made of tiny particles with negative chargeIonic CompoundsBeam always deflected toward theplateCompounds that contain both positively charged ions and negatively Amount of deflection was related to 2 factors
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