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Chapter 4

Chapter 4: Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry

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Michigan State University
CEM 151

Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution StoichiometryWednesday June 18 20141218 PMDefinitionsElectrolytes and NonelectrolytesSolutiona homogeneous mixture of two or more pure substancesAll aqueous solutions can be classified in terms of whether or not they conduct Solvent the substance in greater quantity the substance dissolves the soluteelectricitySolutethe substance in lesser amount the substance that is dissolvedElectrolyte a substance whose aqueous solution contains ions and conducts Aqueous solution water is the dissolving medium or solventelectricitySolvation when an ionic substance dissolves in water the solvent pulls the Nonelectrolyteany substance whose aqueous solution does not contain any individual ions from the crystal and solvates themions and therefore does not conduct electricityMost nonelectrolytes are molecular compoundsStrong ElectrolytesSpecial Categories of Electrolytes Acids Bases and SaltsDissociates completely when dissolved in waterAcidsExist in aqueous solution completely or almost completely as ionsThe Arrhenius definition Acids are substances that ionize in aqueous solutions to increase hydrogen ion concentrationAqueous solutions of strong electrolytes conduct electricity wellStrong Acids completely dissociate into anion and HWeak ElectrolytesDissociates partially when dissolved in waterSeven strong acidsSolutes that exist in solution mostly in the form of molecules with only small HCl hydrochloric acidfractions in the form of ionsHI hydroiodic acidSolutions of weak electrolytes contain both ions and the non ionized HClOperchloric acid4molecule of the solutionHSOsulfuric acid24Aqueous solutions of weak electrolytes are poor conductors of electricityHBr hydrobromic acidNonelectrolytesHClOchloric acid3Substances that are soluble in water but do not dissociateHNOnitric acid3Do not conduct electricityWeak Acids ionize slightly in waterMost molecular compounds are nonelectrolytes except for the acidsAcids other than the seven common strong acidsBasesSubstances that increase OHions when dissolved in waterIdentifying Strong ElectrolytesList of strong basesAll strong acidsGroup 1A metal hydroxides LiOH KOH NaOH RbOH CsOHAll strong basesHeavy group 2A metal hydroxides CaOH SrOH BaOHAll water soluble salts ionic compounds222Weak bases compounds containing N and H or C H and NSolubility guidelines for common ions in waterSaltsAll compounds containing theNeutralization reaction occurs when an acid and base are mixed The Ammonium ion NH and of alkali metal group 1A are 14products of this reaction are water and a saltsolubleSaltany ionic compound whose cation comes from a base and whose All nitrates NO and acetates CHCOOor CHO are 233232anion comes from an acidsoluble2A neutralization reaction between an acid and a metal hydroxide All Cl Br and Iare soluble EXCEPT those of Ag Hg and 322produces water and saltPb2222All SOare soluble EXCEPT those of Ba Sr Ag Hg 4422and PbTypes of Solution Reactions2All OHand Ssalts are water insoluble EXCEPT group 1 and 5Double displacement reactions exchange metathesis reactions222ammonium Ba Sr and CaABCDCBAD23All COand POare insoluble EXCEPT those of NH and 6344Precipitation recactionsalkali metal group 1A cationsAcid
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