Chapter 3 Vocabulary
• Statutory Law: The written or co-defied law; “The law on the books” as enacted by a
government body or agency having the power to make laws.
• Penal Code: The written, organized, and complied form of the criminal laws of a jurisdiction.
• Case Law: The body of judicial precedent, historically built on legal reasoning and past
interpretations of statutory laws, that serves as a guide to decision making, especially in the
• Rule of Law: The maxim that an orderly society must be governed by established principles and
known codes that are applied uniformly and fairly to all of its members.
• Jurisprudence: The philosophy of law.Also, the science and study of the law.
• Substantive Criminal Law: The part of the law that defines crimes and specifies punishments.
• Procedural Law: The part of the law that specifies the methods to be used in enforcing
• Tort:Awrongful act, damage, or injury not involving a breach of contract.Also, a private or
civil wrong or injury.
• Precedent:Alegal principle that ensures that previous judicial decisions are authoritatively
considered and incorporated into future cases.
• Stare Decisis:Alegal principle that requires that in subsequent cases on similar issues of law
and in fact, courts are bound by their own earlier decisions and by those of higher courts having
jurisdiction over them. The term means “Standing by decided matters”
• Infraction:Aminor violation of state statute or local ordinance punishment by a fine or other
penalty or by a specified, usually limited, term on incarceration.
• Treason:AUS citizens actions to help a foreign government overthrow, make war against, or
seriously injure the US.Also, the attempt to overthrow the government of the society of which
one is a member.
• Espionage: The “gathering, transmitting or losing” of information related to the national
defense in such a manner that the information becomes available to enemies of the US and may
be used to their advantage.
• Inchoate Offense: