Chapter 9 Vocab (book)
• Sentencing: The imposition of a criminal sanction by a judicial authority
• Retribution: The act of taking revenge on a criminal perpetrator
• Just Deserts:Amodel of criminal sentencing that holds that criminal offenders deserve the
punishment they receive at the hands of the law and that punishments should be
appropriate to the type and severity of the crime committed.
• Incapacitation: The use of imprisonment or other means to reduce the likelihood that an
offender will commit future offenses
• Deterrence:Agoal of criminal sentencing that seeks to inhibit criminal behavior through the
fear of punishment
• Specific Deterrence:A goal of criminal sentencing that seeks to prevent others from committing
crimes similar to the one for which a particular offender is being sentenced by making
an example of the person sentenced.
• Rehabilitation: The attempt to reform a criminal offender.Also the state in which a reformed
offender is said to be
• Restoration:Agoal of criminal sentencing that attempts to make the victim “whole again”
• Restorative Justice:Asentencing model that builds on restitution and community participation
in an attempt to make the victim “whole again”
• Indeterminate Sentencing:Amodel of criminal punishment that encourages rehabilitation
through the use of general and relatively unspecific sentences (such as a term of
imprisonment of from one to ten years)
• Consecutive Sentence: One of two or more sentences imposed at the same time, after conviction
for more than one offense, and served in sequence with the other sentence.Also, a new
sentence for a new conviction. Imposed upon a person already under sentence for a
previous offense, which is added to the previous sentence, thus increasing the maximum
time the offender may be confined or under supervision.
• Concurrent Sentence: One of two or more sentences imposed at the same time, after conviction
for more than one offense, and served at the same time.Also, a new sentence for a new
conviction. Imposed upon a person already under sentence for a previous offense, which
is served at the same time as the previous sentence.
• Gain Time: The amount of time deducted from time to be served in prison on a given sentence
as a consequence of participation in special projects or programs.
• Good Time: The amount of time deducted from time to be served in prison on a given sentence
as a consequence of good behavior.
• Equity:Asentencing principle, based on concerns with social equality, that holds that similar
crimes should be punished with the same degree of severity, regardless of the social or
personal characteristics of the offenders.
• Social Debt:Asentencing principle that holds that an offenders criminal history should
objectively be taken into account in sentencing decisions.
• Structured Sentencing:Amodel of criminal punishment that includes determinate and
commission-created presumptive sentencing schemes,