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CJ 335 (5)
Chapter 4

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Criminal Justice
CJ 335
Roy Fenoff

Ch. 4: Police Organizations I. The Quasi-Military Style of Police Organizations a. They resemble the military in some but not all aspects b. Originated from Robert Peel c. Resemble military i. Wear uniforms ii. Use military style rank iii. Hierarchical command (flows top down) iv. Authoritarian v. Carry weapons and have the legal authority to use deadly force, physical force, and to deprive people of their liberty through arrest d. Different from military i. Police serve citizen population rather than fight foreign enemy ii. Provide services to helped people and often requested by individuals iii. Constrained by laws that protect citizens iv. Routinely exercise individual discretion A. Criticisms of the Quasi-Military Style a. Many believe this is inappropriate for police to use b. Cultivates an ‘us versus them’ attitude c. Encourages an idea od a ‘war on crime’ d. Command style is contrary to democratic principles of participation e. Authoritarian style produces low morale and rigid rank structure f. Experimented with blazers i. Created problem with public ii. Public used to military style uniforms g. Paramilitary units are most elite police agency and employ very strict military command and train similarly to them II. Police Departments as Organizations A. The Dominant Style of American Police Organizations a. Complex bureaucracy with a hierarchical structure and an authoritarian management style. b. Very small departments have simple structures and more informal management styles B. Police Organizations as Bureaucracies a. Modern police department is a bureaucratic organization b. Most efficient means that has been developed for organizing and directing many different activities in the pursuit of a common goal. c. Characteristics of bureaucracies i. Complex organization performing many different tasks in pursuit of a common goal. ii. Different tasks are grouped into separate divisions or ‘bureaus’ iii. Hierarchical or pyramidal structure with a clear division of labor between workers, iv. Specific tasks is delegated to lower-ranking employees v. Clear chain of command vi. Clear unity of command; answering to one supervisor vii. Written rules and regulations are designed to ensure uniformity and consistency viii. Info flows up and down through the organization ix. Clear career paths as personnel move up C. The Problems with Bureaucracy a. Often rigid, inflexible, and unable to adapt to external changes b. Communication within the organization often breaks down i. Info does not reach the people it needs to and bad decisions are made c. Bureaucracies tend to become inward looking, self-serving, and isolated from the people they serve d. Not using the talents of their employees and stifling creativity D. The Positive Contributions of Bureaucracy in Policing a. Helped to achieve control of discretion and reduction of misconduct E. Informal Aspects of Police Organizations a. Info does not always flow up and down like it is supposed to i. Embarrassing info or mess ups can be covered up by partners or supervisors. ii. Chiefs do not know many of the things because of this. iii. False gossip (discredit someone) True gossip (someone retiring) b. Protective cliques i. Vertical cliques 1. Between lower and higher ranking officers ii. Horizontal cliques 1. Similarly ranked officers 2. Usually created to protect from supervisor oversight and accountability c. Cliques are often based on work groups d. Rivalries occur between patrol officers on different shifts or with patrol officers and higher ranked officers e. Friendships with partner or someone from recruitment class III. Bureaucracy and Police Professionalism a. Has emphasized hierarchical command and control rather than collegial decision making b. Organizations attempt to control behavior through formal, written rules c. Professional departments were ones who did everything by the book IV. Changing Police Organizations A. Community Policing a. Attempts to decentralize decision making both te
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