• Ecological Community: Species that interact within a specific area
• Intraspecific Competition: where members of the same species pursue limited resources
• Interspecific Competition:Interactions among different species as they compete for shared
• Competitive Exclusion Principle:Apostulate that two species that directly compete for essential
resources cannot coexist; One species will eventually displace the other.
• Fundamental Niche: The complete range of environmental conditions, such as requirements for
temperature, food, and water, over which the species might possible exist.
• Realized Niche: The range of conditions over which a species is able to compete effectively
against other species.
• Niche Differentiation: The dividing up of the resources that make up a fundamental niche by
potential competitors so that they are able to coexist.
• Exploitation Competition: In the competition for resources, the ability to take up or use
resources more efficiently.
• Interference Competition: In the competition for resources, the fending off of would-be
competitors with aggressive or territorial behavior.
• Consumers: Species that feed on other living organisms
• Parasites:Organism that lives in or on other plants or animals without killing them directly.
• Herbivores:Species that eats plants.
• Predators: Species that hunt and kill their prey.
• Coevolution: Evolutionary change in which interactions between species select for adaptations
in each species, for instance, plants evolve chemical defenses to thwart herbivores and
herbivores become tolerant or even take advantage of plant chemical defenses.
• Prey Switching:As predation depletes a species numbers, predators switch their attention to
other, more abun