Pg. 68-69 reading 4:6:13.odt

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Integrative Studies Biological
ISB 202

Pg. 68-69 reading 4/6/13 • The many kinda of plastics you use every day are polymers. Polymers are also essential to the structure and function of organisms. • Plants use starch to store extra sugar. Cellulose is the primary structural constituent in plant tissues; it is also one of Earths most abundant organic molecules. • The 20 amino acids found in all organisms have different chemical structures, but each has a nitrogen-containing amino group and a carboxylic acid group. • Each nucleotide is composed of a five carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. • Each nucleotide of DNAcontains the sugar deoxyribose and one of four nitrogenous bases- adenine, thymine, cytosine, or guanine. (adenine always pairs with thymine, and cytosine always pairs with guanine) • The nucleotides of RNAcontain the sugar ribose rather than deoxyribose and nitrogenous base uracil rather than thymine. • The sequence of triplets of nucleic acids in the RNAstrand determines the sequence of amino acids in the newly synthesized protein. • Macromolecules:Alarge complex molecule composed of small organic molecules linked to one another. • Polymers: Simple molecules linked together to form much larger chains or networks. • Polysaccharides: Polymers of simple s
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