Chapter 5 Notes.odt

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Integrative Studies Biological
ISB 202

ISB Chapter 5 Notes (book) Vocab: • Demographers: Those who study factors influencing the size, density, and distribution of human populations. • Demographic Transition Model: Describes the four stages of change in birth rates, death rates and growth rates of human populations associated with economic development. • Mortality Transition:Another term used for death rate • Fertility Transition: The third stage of the demographic transition in which continued economic development produces social and cultural changes that lead to lower birth rates • Stability Transition: The fourth stage of the demographic transition that is characterized by low birth, death, and population growth rates • Age-specific birth rate: The number of children born in a yer per 1,000 women within defined age groups • Infant Mortality Rate: The number of infants within a population who die before the age of one • Life Expectancy: The average age to which a baby born at a given time will live; provides a summary of differences in survivorship. • Age-structure Pyramids:Agraphical illustration of how populations are apportioned according to age and gender. • Net Migration Rate:Acalculation of the difference between immigration and emigration per 1,000 individuals in the population. • Push Factors: Conditions that force people to emigrate from a country. • Pull Factors: Conditions that encourage people to immigrate into a country • Ecological Footprint: The land area required to produce the ecosystem goods and services for entire human populations or for the average individual in such populations. • Bio-capacity:Ameasure of the area and quality of land available to supply a population with resources. • IPAT Equation:An equation that summarizes the relationship between human impact and population size, affluence, and technology: I= P XAX T, where I represents environmental impact, P represents population,Arepresents affluence, and T represents technology. • Neo-Malthusian:Activities related to the belief that as the human population increased, it would soon outpace the supply of food. • Baby Boom: The period immediately following World War II in which the birth rate increased sharply. Notes: • Between 2007-2009 the amount of energy that the average person uses per year rose above 80 billion joules which is equivalent to the energy in about 615 gallons of gasoline • Today, over 80% of the energy used by humans comes from fossil fuels • Well-being is highest where population growth rates are low and consumption is high. It is lowest where population growth are high and consumption is low • Demographers identify three periods of human population growth- the pre-agricultural period, the agricultural period, and the industrial period. • The pre-agricultural period extended over more than 100,000 years, and coincided with the development of human culture. •
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