ISB Chapter 5 Notes (book)
• Demographers: Those who study factors influencing the size, density, and distribution of human
• Demographic Transition Model: Describes the four stages of change in birth rates, death rates
and growth rates of human populations associated with economic development.
• Mortality Transition:Another term used for death rate
• Fertility Transition: The third stage of the demographic transition in which continued economic
development produces social and cultural changes that lead to lower birth rates
• Stability Transition: The fourth stage of the demographic transition that is characterized by low
birth, death, and population growth rates
• Age-specific birth rate: The number of children born in a yer per 1,000 women within defined
• Infant Mortality Rate: The number of infants within a population who die before the age of one
• Life Expectancy: The average age to which a baby born at a given time will live; provides a
summary of differences in survivorship.
• Age-structure Pyramids:Agraphical illustration of how populations are apportioned according
to age and gender.
• Net Migration Rate:Acalculation of the difference between immigration and emigration per
1,000 individuals in the population.
• Push Factors: Conditions that force people to emigrate from a country.
• Pull Factors: Conditions that encourage people to immigrate into a country
• Ecological Footprint: The land area required to produce the ecosystem goods and services for
entire human populations or for the average individual in such populations.
• Bio-capacity:Ameasure of the area and quality of land available to supply a population with
• IPAT Equation:An equation that summarizes the relationship between human impact and
population size, affluence, and technology: I= P XAX T, where I represents environmental
impact, P represents population,Arepresents affluence, and T represents technology.
• Neo-Malthusian:Activities related to the belief that as the human population increased, it would
soon outpace the supply of food.
• Baby Boom: The period immediately following World War II in which the birth rate increased
• Between 2007-2009 the amount of energy that the average person uses per year rose above 80
billion joules which is equivalent to the energy in about 615 gallons of gasoline
• Today, over 80% of the energy used by humans comes from fossil fuels
• Well-being is highest where population growth rates are low and consumption is high. It is
lowest where population growth are high and consumption is low
• Demographers identify three periods of human population growth- the pre-agricultural period,
the agricultural period, and the industrial period.
• The pre-agricultural period extended over more than 100,000 years, and coincided with the
development of human culture.