Psych Chapter 1.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 101
Professor
Professor Hambrick
Semester
Fall

Description
Psych Chapter 1 Some notes in notebook 09/26/2013 Theory­an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations/data/info. Hypothesis­a testable prediction implied by a theory. Educated guess. Simple observation­one source of research questions psychology is simply observing the world  around you and asking questions about why people think and behave as they do. Personal experience­like you, psychologists want to understand their own tendencies, and foibles. Replication­seeing whether a basic finding can be observed again with different participants and under  different circumstances. Operational definition­a specific statement of the procedures used to define research variables, so  as to allow others to replicate the original observations. Choosing a research design: setting­lab or field, methods­descriptive, correlational, experimental. Descriptive methods:  The Case Study­an in depth investigation of a single (or very few) subjects. The Survey a­ investigation of many cases in less depth by asking people to report opinions and  behaviors. A technique for ascertaining the self­reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people usually  done by questioning a representative sample of people—one that accurately portrays the population of  interest. Naturalistic Observation­recording behavior in its natural environments, and describing it in detail. Experimental methods: purpose is to explore cause and effect by manipulating one or more factors,  while holding other factors constant. Variable­anything that can fluctuate. Whether it’s rainy or sunny, warm or cold, person is male or female,  good or bad mood. Independent Variable ­spect of the situation or of individuals that can vary independently of other variables.  The variables whose effect is being studied. Dependent Variable t­e variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent  variable. Random Assignment ass­gning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing  preexisting differences between the groups that could affect the dependent variable. Confounding Variable­another variable that complicates the experiment. Correlational methods: purpose is to observe naturally occurring relationships between variables. Correlation Coefficient­a statistical index (­1 to 1) of the relationship between two variables. Scatterplot­ a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variable. The slope of the  points suggests the direction of the relationship, while the amount of scatter suggests the strength of the  relationship. Directionality Problem­variable A causes variable B or vice­versa. Low self­esteem (A) causes depression  (B) or depression causes low self­esteem. Third Var
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