Psych Chapter 4.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 101
Professor
Professor Hambrick

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Psych Chapter 4 09/26/2013 Chapter 4: Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity People differ in many aspects of psychological functioning. For example, some people possess a “Type A”  personality and are aggressive, ambitious, and controlling, whereas others possess a “Type B” personality  and are passive and easy­going. Yet, we are also similar in some aspects of our psychological functioning. For example, whether we live in  the Arctic or tropics, we divide the color spectrum into similar colors. Behavioral Genetics­the study of effects of environmental and genetic factors, and their interplay, on  differences in psychological traits. Genes­our codes for life. Every cell in your body contains chromosomes­23 from mom and 23 from dad.  Each chromosome is made up of two strands of DNA connected in a double helix. Genes are small  segments of DNA molecules. (page 130) Twin and Adoption Studies­identical twins develop from a single fertilized egg and are genetically identical,  whereas fraternal twins develop from separate fertilized eggs and share half their genes, just like siblings. Are adopted children more alike their biological parents, who contributed their genes, or their adoptive  parents, who contribute a home environment? Surprisingly, in many traits, adoptive children do not closely resemble their adoptive parents and are more  similar to their biological parents. Heritability­heritability of a trait is a mathematical estimate of the extent to which variation among individuals  can be attributed to their differing genes; it can range from 0 to 1. Group Differences­a trait can be found to be substantially heritable, but this does not imply that group  differences, such as those between men and women, are heritable. Molecular Genetics­the goal of molecular genetics is to identify specific genes that influence behavior. APOE4 gene­has been linked to Alzheimer’s disease. Evolutionary Psychology Natural Selection­organisms’ varied offspring compete for survival. Certain behavioral characteristics  increase odds of survival in a particular environment. Offspring that survive reproduce and pass on their  genes. Evolutionary psychologists believe our tendencies as humans have been shaped by evolution. Parents and Peers Whether early environment is impoverished or enriched has a major impact on brain development:  Rosenzweig and Krech found that rats raised in an enriched environment developed a larger, and thicker,  cortex than rats raise
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