Chem-Chapter 1.docx

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 1320
Professor
Ganley
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 1: The study of change 8/19 Chemistry:  ­Study of matter and the changes it undergoes ­Making and breaking of chemical bonds Study of Chemistry:  ­Models: explaining observed phenomena >Ball­and­stick ­Macroscopic phenomena caused by microscopic events Scientific Method:  1. Observation 2. Representation 3. Interpretation Law: concise statement of a relationship between phenomena that  is always the same under the same conditions Theory: unifying principle that explains a body of facts Big Bang Theory: example of scientific process Classification of Matter Matter: mass & volume­books: trees, you. Takes up space Composition: types and amounts of simpler substances Properties: characteristics identifying a substance Physical/Chemical properties Composition:  1. Elements­ on periodic table, one type of atom present; 02 H2 2. Compounds­ two types of atoms within/chemical formula;  H2O 3. Mixtures­ cant be expressed by a formula/2 types of atoms,  all exclusive; kool aid Pure substances Compounds­constant composition/break down chemically Elements­same kinds of atom/cant break down chemically Elements: On periodic table: oxygen, tin, and copper Some not found on table: graphite, diamond, and ozone Compounds: Carbon dioxide (CO2), Water (H2O) Mixtures: Broken down physically­ filtration/evaporation. Combine 2 or  more pure substances; sand Mixtures vs. pure substances: Chemistry deals with mixtures Reactions deal with pure substances Matter can be broken down into mixtures/ pure substances Mixtures: Homogenous­Kool aid/Heterogeneous­Milk Shake/ layers Pure substances: Compounds/Elements  Three states of matter: Solid: definite shape and volume, molecules held together Liquid: indefinite shape, definite volume, takes container’s shape Gas: indefinite shape and volume, completely fill container Properties: Physical­observed without doing a chemical reaction >color, density, melting point Chemical­ chemical reaction must be done >chemical  bonds are broken/formed, flammability, corrosiveness 8/21 Extensive and intensive properties Extensive: depends on how much matter there is ­mass ­volume Intensive: does not depend on amount of matter ­density ­temperature ­color Measurement Qualitative: cloudy, warm, thick Quantitative: need measurements, numbers SI units (metric system) Review table 1.2 and 1.3 Dimensional An
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