PHIL 1200 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Sentence Clause Structure, Truth Function, Stoicism

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7 Feb 2017
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Chapter 10- Think like a stoic
Declarative sentences-
Stoic logic begins with the precise definitions of all key ideas
A sayable is a meaning
A self-complete sayable is a meaning that can be expressed in a complete
sentence
5 types of sentences:
o Questions
o Commands
o Exclamations
o Performatives
o Declarative (only one capable of expressing something that is true or
false)
Simple, compound, and embedded sentences
A compound sentence is any sentence that contains one or more sentences
and one or more sentence operators
A sentence within a compound sentence is called an embedded sentence, or a
component sentence
A simple sentence is any sentence that is not compound
Sentence operators
A sentence operator is a word or phrase that forms a compound sentence out
of one more sentences
An operator that joins two sentences into a compound is called a dyadic or
two-place operator
An operator that operates on just one sentence to form a compound is called
a monadic or one-place operator
Naming the operators
And
Or
Not
If
Truth-values and truth-functions
If a sentence expresses the truth, instead of imply calling it true, we shall
sometimes say that it has the truth-value of true
Definition of Function
A function is a rule that relates one set of values to another set of values
A functional relationship exists between the number of glasses of wine Blipo
drink and the number of loaves of bread he consumes
Definition of Truth-Function
A truth function is simply a rule relating one set of truth-values to another
set of truth-values
The conjunction function
There is a functional relationship between the truth-values of the embedded
sentences and the truth-value of the compound sentence as a whole
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