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Chapter 1

ANT 252 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Cotton Gin, Linguistic Anthropology, Biological Anthropology


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT 252
Professor
Molly Mullin
Chapter
1

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ANT 252: Cultural Anthropology Chapter 1 Notes
Anthropology – the study of human beings, their biology, their pre-prehistory and histories, and
their changing languages, cultures, and social institutions
oemerged in Europe and North America during the 19th century
osome key concerns of the 1850s during which anthropology became relevant included
the disruptions of industrialization on Europe and America
the rise of evolutionary theories
growing importance of Europe’s far-flung colonies with large indigenous
population whose land, mineral wealth, and labor Europeans and Americans
wanted to control
oOne key influence on the development of anthropology was that of industrialization
Industrialization – the economic process of shifting from an agricultural
economy to a factory based one
some key inventions during this period included the cotton gin, steam
engine, etc.
industrialization brought large numbers of rural people into towns and cities,
which raised questions about how society was changing
these questions motivated key social thinkers such as Karl Marx, Max
Weber, and Emile Durkheim
oAnother key influence on the development of anthropology was that of the theory of
evolution
Evolution – the adaptive changes organisms make over time
Charles Darwin
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