MARK 20100 Chapter 4: Chapter 4 Summary

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7 Feb 2017
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Chapter 04Understand Business-to-Consumer Markets2/7/2017 6:13:00 PM
Internal forces affect consumer choices
Personal characteristics
o Age, education, occupation, income, lifestyle, gender
o Life cycle stage (age)
Family life cyclelife changes that mirror the
individual’s family environment and include the number,
age, and gender of people in the family, affects buying
habits
o Occupation
People who work together tend to buy and wear similar
clothes, shop at the same stores, and vacation at the
same places
o Lifestyle—an individual’s perspective on life and manifests
itself in that person’s activities, interests, and opinions
Gender rolesbehaviors regarded as proper for men
and women in a particular society
Psychological attributes
o Motivationthe stimulating power that induces and then
directs behavior
Hierarchy of Needs Theory by Maslow
o Attitudea learned predisposition to respond to an object or
class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable
way, formed by values and beliefs which affect purchase
decisions
Multiattribute modelevaluates the object on several
important attributes, most
o Perceptiona system to select, organize, and interpret
information to create a useful, informed picture of the world
Selective awarenessa psychological took employed by
humans to help them focus on what is relevant and
eliminate what is not
Selective distortiona process through which
information can be misunderstood or made to fit
existing beliefs
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Selective retention—the process of placing in one’s
memory only those stimuli that support existing beliefs
and attitudes about a product or brand
Memorywhere people store all past learning
events
Short-term memorywhat is being recalled at the
present time and is sometimes referred to as
working memory
Long-term memoryenduring storage, important
to marketing managers to understand individuals’
long-term memory recall about their brand
o Learningany change in the content or organization for long-
term memory or behavior
Conditioning
Cognitive learningmore active and involves mental
processes that acquire information to work through
problems and manage life situations
o Personalitya set of unique personal qualities that produce
distinctive responses across similar situations, two
assumptions:
(1) Each person has a set of consistent, enduring
personal characteristics
(2) Those characteristics can be measured to identify
differences between individuals
Brand personalitythe association between a brand and
specific personality characteristics
Sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication,
ruggedness
External factors shape consumer choices
Cultural factors
o Primary driver of consumer behavior because it teaches
values and product preferences, affecting perceptions and
attitudes
o Cultureassimilated shared artifacts such as values, morals,
beliefs, art, law, and customs into an organized system that
enables people to function as members of society
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