Important Anatomical Terms

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BIOL 1117
Christopher Richardson

Anatomical Orientation/Important Terms • Anatomical Position: Person stands erect; Feet flat on floor; Arms at sides; and palms, face & eyes facing forward (Standard frame of reference for anatomical descriptions & dissection) • Forearm Positions: When supinated, palms face forward or upward and radius & ulna are parallel while when pronated, palms face rearward or downward and radius & ulna are crossed. • Sagittal plane divides body into right and left regions with median (midsagittal) plane dividing body or organ into equal halves • Frontal (coronal) plane divides body into anterior (front) & posterior (back) portions • Transverse (horizontal) plane divides the body into superior (upper) & inferior (lower) portions • Ventral = towards front/belly; dorsal = towards back/spine • In humans, anterior = towards ventral side while posterior = towards dorsal side • In 4 legged animals: anterior (towards head) is different from ventral (towards belly); posterior (towards tail) is different from dorsal (towards back) • Medial = towards medial plane; lateral = away from medial plane • Proximal = closer to point of attachment or origin; distal = farther from point of attachment or origin • Superfical = closer to body surface; deep = farther from body surface • Cephalic = towards head/superior; rostral = towards forehead or nose; caudal = towards tail/inferior • Axial region = head, neck, & trunk; thoracic region = trunk above diaphragm; abdominal region = trunk below diaphragm; divided into quadrants • Appendicular region = upper & lower limbs; upper limb: arm (brachial region), forearm (antebrachial region), wrist (carpal region), hand (manual region), fingers (digits); lower limb: thigh (femoral region), leg (crural region), ankle (tarsal region), foot (pe
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