30271 Eve DeAngelis January 12, 2014.docx

3 Pages

Earth & Environmental Sciences
Course Code
ENVR 1104
Malcolm D Hill

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1 1/12/14 Natural Disasters and Catastrophes ENVR 1104 CRN: 30271 Chapter 3: Earthquakes • Earthquake= rhythmic shaking of earth (wave movement) duration can last from a few seconds to a few minutes • Dip= the angle an inclined plane makes with a horizontal plane • Strike= of an inclined plane, is the compass direction of a line formed by the intersection of the inclined fault, with a horizontal plane • Focus= the point in earth where rock breaks • Epicenter= the point on a map directly above the surface of the earthquake • Fault= a planar break in earth’s surface • Hanging wall= the block above an inclined fault • Foot wall= the block below an inclined fault • Normal Fault: o Vertical-offset fault o If the hanging-wall block slips down the inclined fault surface o Stress has to be tension • Reverse Fault: o Vertical-offset fault o If the hanging-wall block rides higher up the fault plane o Stress has to be compression across the fault plane • Strike Slip Fault: o Horizontal-offset fault o Created by tension stress o Can be right lateral or left lateral- according to which way the back of the diagram shifts; ex: if it shifts right it’s right lateral • How EQ’s occur: o When rock breaks and moves differently along faults o Release of stored energy once rocks break o The larger the offset, the more energy was released 2 o Weak rocks can break before significant energy is stored up, creating little to no earthquake activity • Earthquake waves: o P and S waves- travel through earths interior  S waves move rock by shifting it (shearing it) from side to side, perpendicular to the direction of travel  P waves always travel through rock or sediment more quickly than S waves do, which
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