Chapter 2, 7, 9, 28.docx

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Northeastern University
International Affairs
INTL 1101
Denise Horn

Nicole Hicks Globalization and International Affairs Ch 2. Global Interdependences and Movements and Global Justice Amartya Sen (writing) - Globalization isn’t a “new Western curse” – also not really western… o Agents of globalization aren’t European or completely Western - The argument – it’s not fair. The rich are getting richer and the poor are getting poorer o Not uniformly... not really supported by fact o Maybe there’s a misdiagnosis of the real problem - To deny globalization of science and tech. is overlooking many great advancements, which the whole world benefits from - India resisted to use Western concepts in science/math – shooting themselves in the foot - Globalization isn’t just Western imperialism - Poverty dominated the world 200 years ago o Now, there is a “well-established efficient of international trade and exchange” – theoretically helping the poor as well as everyone else  Not unfair to the poor, but the poor aren’t necessarily getting their share of the benefits - A market-based economy is incredibly influenced by public policies (in edu, land reform, legal protections…) - International businesses prefer to have orderly autocracies instead of activist/less structured democracies o May be a decline in fair development - CONCLUSION -- Globalization is great and all, but needs a reform. There are potentially huge benefits, so we have to make sure everyone is benefitting (equally…) Ch 7. Transnational Practices and the Sociology of the Global System Leslie Sklair - Transnational practices (TNP) = What people do when acting within specific contexts that cross state boarders (create globalizing processes) o Focuses on quantitative data, not anything vague or conceptual - The global system has three levels, each of which has a specific institution o Economic o Political o Culutre-Ideology - Globalization is dominantly present in the form on capitalism, but others include The World Bank, G7, and the US Treasury o It’s hard to say how much influence the US has in this, because other countries support the same policies o Washington Consensus = “standard” reform policy, based in economics - The whole system would be threatened if everyone wanted to “get rich quick or to cut their losses” o The direct producers, or the little guys, get hurt the most when this happens - The State = the part of capitalism that creates the political environment conducive to buying and selling products internationally - Economic TNPs could be limited to a single country (rule-wise) but their effects are transnational o A benefit of the expansion of capitalism is that more people are realizing this and are more conscious of how their businesses affects others (like consumers now know if their product was made in a Chinese sweatshop and can make more educated decisions on what to buy from where) - The transnational capitalist class (TNC) aren’t traditionally Marxist anymore (not exclusively controlled) but includes o Executives (corporate) o Bureaucrats and politicians (state) o Professionals (technical) o Merchants and media (consumers) - Strength of the TNC is based on the relative weakness of transnat. Labor o Governments who strongly support industry have been known to stop; national labor laws in order to keep production up and money coming in  The bureaucrats and politicians are good for the money side, but almost always bad for the laborers - Bagdikian argued that national boundaries were becoming meaningless because the top countries all wanted total control in all parts of the capitalist global system – production, delivery, marketing – to maximize the buying of culture-ideology goods - Culture Ideology of Consumerism = now a global occurrence BECAUSE of two things: o Capitalism entering a new phase in the 60s  For the first time in history, an economic system was able to provide almost everyone with a
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