Chapter 21, 26, 27.docx

2 Pages
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Department
International Affairs
Course Code
INTL 1101
Professor
Denise Horn

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Nicole Hicks Globalization and International Affairs Ch 21 Organization, Governance, and Development of the Global Economy Gary Gereffi - Most common explanations of expanding globalization are technological and political change - The nature of international trade has changed in unprecedented ways… now producers can have the production process separated into many pieces in different geographic regions (fragmentation), a global production network has been developed that shows how governments have changed to accommodate the new economies, along with how the distribution of capital has been altered - The integration of world markets had led to the disintegration of the production process (see above) - Firms need one of two types of “competitive advantages” – low cost (for operation and production) or differentiation (doing things in a different way than other firms) - Two extremes are “multidomestic industries” and “global industries” o Multidomestic – competition in one country is independent from competition in another country o Global – competitive position is greatly impacted by position in another country - International competition is the “norm,” and some believe that certain global strategies are necessary in order to succeed as a large firm - The value-chain which makes up the global economy includes these terms: o Supply chains (beginning with raw material and ending with the product) o International production networks o Global commodity chains (emphasis on internal governing structure, sets up global production/sourcing networks) o French “filiere” approach (“channels” activities to study agricultural exports) o Global value chains (emphasis on the value of economic activities) - Industrial Upgrading = nations, firms, and workers move from low-value to high-value activities in the global network o Uncertain mix of things cause this, like different government policies, technology, and strategies - Apparel – very labor intensive, so components are created around the world o Marketing, design, production (sewing machines, fabric, etc) - Electronics – high cross-border production network competition (by the US, Japan, and European nations) - Fresh produce – In Kenya and Zimbabwe, fresh veggies are a buyer-driven value chain, so the US and UK could help maximize profits. Cold storage and treating logistics helped to advance these nations, as is the case in many developing nations Ch. 26 Financialization and Globalization Ashok Bardhan - Many people attribute the current global “Crisis” to lack of regulations/other pieces o
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