POLI SCI 351 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2.5: European Colonialism, The International (Golf)

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LECTURE 2 READINGS: COLONIALISM, NATIONALISM AND
INDEPENDENCE
STATE AND SOCIETY IN THE CONTEMPORARY MIDDLE EAST: AN
OLD/NEW RELATIONSHIP
- Why has the Middle East become such a center for authoritarian
governments and authoritarian opposition?
- When the great powers intervened so directly into state affairs and
dictated policy and financial assistance, they underwrote democracy
- OIL - governments, not individuals or private corporations, control
revenues from oil, so governments are the ones who get the
economic/political power from these profits
ANGRIST: THE INTERNATIONAL GEOPOLITICAL SYSTEM AND THE
MIDDLE EAST:
- Main Argument: Outside intervention in the Middle East either helps to
stabilize and solidify regimes or it destabilizes it
- Every part of the Middle East was under European military control at some
time in the twentieth century (in the first half, European balance of powers;
in the second half, United States and Soviet Union)
- Even states that had some claim to an independent, precolonial history saw
their borders drawn and their modern state governments created by
European colonialism
- The fate of these outside interventions often lies in how the ruler deals with
them - if they play their cards right, it can bolster their rule; if they don’t, it
can lose them their throne
- Lots of contemporary dynamics has roots in picking of sides during the Cold
War - Turkey, Jordan, Morrocco, Israel are long time US allies while Syria,
Iraq were Soviet allies
- US has tight allies w/ Saudi Arabia because of oil
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