POLI SCI 351 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2.1: Turkish Language, Calender, Turkey

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LECTURE 2 READINGS: COLONIALISM, NATIONALISM AND
INDEPENDENCE
GASPER - MAKING OF THE MIDDLE EAST PART II
MAKING NATION STATES:
- After WWI and even until like 1970, all the Middle Eastern countries
essentially had to build governmental and legal structures from scratch --
many at least attempted to have an outside facade of democratic policy,
ratifying constitutions, defining rights and responsibilities of citizens, and
holding some form of “elections”
- Political parties and mass politics emerged
- Elite nationalists - wanted to maintain the power and authority of the
colonial mandates, but replacing the colonial power government with
an elite government
- Communist parties and Arab nationalists also emerged and got the
support of those alienated by elite nationalists - peasantry, small
business owners, tradespeople, marginalized ethnic groups etc.
- There maintains a primary debate about where to look for guidance in going
forward building these nations..be inspired by Western countries and
modernizing in that way or looking towards Islamic leaders and the Qaran
for guidance..
- Parallels between post WWI Turkish history and Iranian history
- Pattern of things being imposed “top down” by government; even if they are
in the name of modernization and democratization, they are still “top down”
reforms
- Whoever is backed by the European country is the one that is victorious in
these power struggles
TURKEY:
- First treaty after WWI (Treaty of Sevres) just greatly desizes the Ottoman
Empire
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