POLI SCI 351 Chapter 1.2: POLITICS LECTURE 1 READING-2

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EGYPT
- An Ottoman territory
- Invaded by Napoleon in 1798, and then they troops left in 1801
- Consequence of Napoleon’s invasion is that Mehmet Ali (an Albanian)
could come in and become its de facto ruler - set up a strong centralized state
and governmental agricultural monopolies
- Brits came to Ottoman aid and invaded Egypt, leaving with a treaty that
greatly reduced its power
PERSIA
- Similar to the Ottoman empire in that its lack of central authority resulted in
the growing influence of European powers, and it was gradually succumbing
to them during the 19th century
- Attempted reforms -- didn’t work, tribal groups became more autonomous
and had greater military capability than the central state
- Eventually the country was split into two spheres of influence - Russians
dominated in North and British in the South
OTHER MIDDLE EASTERN AREAS
- “From the later part of the nineteenth century until World War I, the entire
Middle East experienced deepening European influence and domination.
Often this involvement began with a financial crisis caused by crushing debt
that Europeans took upon themselves to “resolve.” In other cases, European
powers simply wanted to build colonial empires.” (19)
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