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New York University
Media, Culture & Communication
James P.Stanley

Enlightenment -in the east they were writing on wood, bamboo, and silk -made rag paper by using mulberry bark; hemp, plant fibers and putting them together -paper is exported to the Arabs and to Italy/Spain & quickly spread through Europe. Arabs had the paper for year -how does the fabric informs what's wrote. -in the T'ang Dtnasy they coppied with stone rubbings, printed silk, stencils, block printing -block printing was a threat to the scribal culture -invention of moveable type meant that you didn't need to have just blocks with the writing but you could rearrange mini blocks with letters. The problem in china is that they have so many characters, but it worked better in Europe with less characters -block print books came in the mid 1400's. -Gutenberg invents the printing press in 1450 by creating individual letters. He does this in order to print bibles. They had a heavy focus on appearance of manuscript. They copied calligraphy and made it look like handwriting. PrintingsEffects -Increased rate of textual production and circulation -standardizatoin of texts -use of vernacular language; decline of Latin- this was a challenge to the churn and the state -challenge to church monopoly on media -changes in visual culture: maps and picture stories -spread of presses -printing plays role in protestant ref
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