2/10/2013 12:41:00 PM
Sigmund Freud (1856-1936)
Began his career as a research neurologist and studied with Jean-Martin Charcot in
France to study field of hypnosis.
Free association- instructing patient to say whatever came to mind to talk about any
Carl Jung and Alfred Adler were the most famous of Freud’s disciples who eventually
split from their mentor.
His ideas came from the patients he treated and even more importantly from his
observations of the workings of his own mind. something common between
psychoanalytic approach and humanistic approach.
THE KEY IDEAS OF PSYCHOANALYSIS
o Psychic determinism
o Internal structure
o Psychic conflict
o Mental energy
Determinism: the idea that everything that happens has a cause that – in principle,
maybe not always in practice – can be identified.
Psychic determinism: the assumption that everything that happens in a person’s
mind, and therefore everything that a person thinks and does, also has a specific
o Leaves no room for miracles, free will, or even random accidents only faith
o Leads to conclusion that many important mental processes are unconscious
o Only a small part of the mind is accessible to conscious awareness
The assumption that the mind has an internal structure made of parts that can
function independently and which, in some cases, conflict with each other.
o Idea is consistent with brain function, however, the brain is a physical organ,
whereas the mind is the psychological result of what the brain and the rest of
he body do. Psychoanalytic theory sees the mind as divided into three independent parts:
o Id, ego, and superego
o These terms pertain to the irrational and emotional part of the mind (id), the
rational part of the mind (ego), and the moral part of the mind (superego).
Consider the mind as containing many voices, not just one, and that they might not
all be saying the same thing.
Psychic Conflict and Compromise
Because the mind is divided into distinct and independent parts, it can conflict with
o Example: Your id wants ice cream right now, but your superego thinks you
don’t deserve it because you haven’t studied all week. It might fall to your
ego to form a compromise: You get to have ice cream after you have finished
Compromise Formation: Ego’s main job is to find a middle course between the
competing demands of motivation, morality, and practicality, and also among the
many things a person wants at the same time.
o The result of the compromise is what the individual consciously thinks and
Final assumption that the psychological apparatus of the mind needs energy to
make it go.
o The kind of energy required is sometimes called mental, or psychic energy,
also known as libido, and only a fixed and finite amount is available at any
o Therefore, energy powering one part of the mind is not available for any
other part; energy spent doing one thing, such as pushing bad thoughts out
of memory, is unavailable for other purposes, such as having new and
creative ideas. principle of conservation of energy
o Contradiction: expressing anger usually makes a person more angry, not less,
therefore unexpressed impulses do not build up over time.
o Psychic energy has no units of measurement.
Solution: Modification where in current thinking, the assumption is that it is the
mind’s capacity for processing information, rather than its energy that is limited. CONTROVERSY
Psychoanalysis has been controversial throughout its history, although the nature of
the controversy has changed with the times. Freud was one of the geniuses of the
PSYCHOANALYSIS, LIFE, AND DEATH
Freud believed two motives are fundamental- life and death. Both are always
present and competing motives, but in the end, death always wins.
The life drive is called libido, also referred to as the sexual drive.
o Freud meant that libido had to do with the creation, protection, and
enjoyment of life and with creativity, productivity, and growth.
o He believed that this fundamental force exists within every person.
Death drive is called Thanatos. Think of it like entropy – moving towards disorder
o Human mind is trying to keep our thoughts and our worlds orderly, and to
maintain creativity and growth, whereas life leads us to disorder and death.
The doctrine of opposites: everything implies, even requires its opposite – life
requires death, happiness requires sadness, and so forth. One cannot exist without
PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT: “FOLLOW THE MONEY’
The focal points for psychic energy (libido) define the states of psychological
o Oral, anal, phallic, and genital
o Each stage has three aspects:
1. A physical focus, where energy is concentrated and gratification is
2. A psychological theme, related both to the physical focus and to
the demands on the child from the outside world during development
3. An adult character type, associated with being fixated (to some
degree stalled) in that particular stage, rather than fully developing
toward the next one.
o *If an individual fails to resolve the psychological issues that arise at a
particular stage, that person will always have some psychological scar tissue
related to that stage, and those issues will be troublesome throughout life. Oral Stage
Birth to 18 months
Children who grew up to be narcissists tended to have been raised by parents who
were excessively cold or showered them with two much admiration.
o The best is the middle, where a parent makes reasonable efforts to fulfill a
child’s wants and needs but not go overboard by making sure every wish is
instantly gratified, nor neglect the child so much