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Chapter 10

Psych puzzle- chapter 10

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2/10/2013 12:41:00 PM Chapter 10 Sigmund Freud (1856-1936)  Began his career as a research neurologist and studied with Jean-Martin Charcot in France to study field of hypnosis.  Free association- instructing patient to say whatever came to mind to talk about any difficult topics.  Carl Jung and Alfred Adler were the most famous of Freud’s disciples who eventually split from their mentor.  His ideas came from the patients he treated and even more importantly from his observations of the workings of his own mind.  something common between psychoanalytic approach and humanistic approach. THE KEY IDEAS OF PSYCHOANALYSIS  Four ideas: o Psychic determinism o Internal structure o Psychic conflict o Mental energy Psychic Determinism  Determinism: the idea that everything that happens has a cause that – in principle, maybe not always in practice – can be identified.  Psychic determinism: the assumption that everything that happens in a person’s mind, and therefore everything that a person thinks and does, also has a specific cause. o Leaves no room for miracles, free will, or even random accidents only faith o Leads to conclusion that many important mental processes are unconscious o Only a small part of the mind is accessible to conscious awareness Internal Structure  The assumption that the mind has an internal structure made of parts that can function independently and which, in some cases, conflict with each other. o Idea is consistent with brain function, however, the brain is a physical organ, whereas the mind is the psychological result of what the brain and the rest of he body do.  Psychoanalytic theory sees the mind as divided into three independent parts: o Id, ego, and superego o These terms pertain to the irrational and emotional part of the mind (id), the rational part of the mind (ego), and the moral part of the mind (superego).  Consider the mind as containing many voices, not just one, and that they might not all be saying the same thing. Psychic Conflict and Compromise  Because the mind is divided into distinct and independent parts, it can conflict with itself. o Example: Your id wants ice cream right now, but your superego thinks you don’t deserve it because you haven’t studied all week. It might fall to your ego to form a compromise: You get to have ice cream after you have finished this chapter.  Compromise Formation: Ego’s main job is to find a middle course between the competing demands of motivation, morality, and practicality, and also among the many things a person wants at the same time. o The result of the compromise is what the individual consciously thinks and actually does. Mental Energy  Final assumption that the psychological apparatus of the mind needs energy to make it go. o The kind of energy required is sometimes called mental, or psychic energy, also known as libido, and only a fixed and finite amount is available at any given moment. o Therefore, energy powering one part of the mind is not available for any other part; energy spent doing one thing, such as pushing bad thoughts out of memory, is unavailable for other purposes, such as having new and creative ideas.  principle of conservation of energy  Problems: o Contradiction: expressing anger usually makes a person more angry, not less, therefore unexpressed impulses do not build up over time. o Psychic energy has no units of measurement.  Solution: Modification where in current thinking, the assumption is that it is the mind’s capacity for processing information, rather than its energy that is limited. CONTROVERSY  Psychoanalysis has been controversial throughout its history, although the nature of the controversy has changed with the times. Freud was one of the geniuses of the 20 century. PSYCHOANALYSIS, LIFE, AND DEATH  Freud believed two motives are fundamental- life and death. Both are always present and competing motives, but in the end, death always wins.  The life drive is called libido, also referred to as the sexual drive. o Freud meant that libido had to do with the creation, protection, and enjoyment of life and with creativity, productivity, and growth. o He believed that this fundamental force exists within every person.  Death drive is called Thanatos. Think of it like entropy – moving towards disorder o Human mind is trying to keep our thoughts and our worlds orderly, and to maintain creativity and growth, whereas life leads us to disorder and death.  The doctrine of opposites: everything implies, even requires its opposite – life requires death, happiness requires sadness, and so forth. One cannot exist without the other. PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT: “FOLLOW THE MONEY’  The focal points for psychic energy (libido) define the states of psychological development: o Oral, anal, phallic, and genital o Each stage has three aspects:  1. A physical focus, where energy is concentrated and gratification is obtained.  2. A psychological theme, related both to the physical focus and to the demands on the child from the outside world during development  3. An adult character type, associated with being fixated (to some degree stalled) in that particular stage, rather than fully developing toward the next one. o *If an individual fails to resolve the psychological issues that arise at a particular stage, that person will always have some psychological scar tissue related to that stage, and those issues will be troublesome throughout life. Oral Stage  Birth to 18 months  Children who grew up to be narcissists tended to have been raised by parents who were excessively cold or showered them with two much admiration. o The best is the middle, where a parent makes reasonable efforts to fulfill a child’s wants and needs but not go overboard by making sure every wish is instantly gratified, nor neglect the child so much
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