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Chapter

PSYCH 1100 Chapter Notes -Temporal Lobe, Frontal Lobe, Auditory Cortex


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1100
Professor
Kamara

Page:
of 7
Chapter 6: Memory 09/29/2014
Memory is the ability to store & retrieve information over time.
Three Key Functions of Memory:
1. Encoding: the process by which we transform what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring
memory
2. Storage: the process of maintaining information in memory over time
3. Retrieval: the process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded & stored
Encoding: Transforming Perceptions into Memories
Memories are constructed, not recorded
Encoding is the process by which we transform what we perceivce, think, or feel into an enduring memory
Three Types of Encoding Processes:
1. Elaborative Encoding: the process of actively relating new information to knowledge
that is already in memory
2. Visual Imagery Encoding: the process of storing new information by converting it into
mental pictures
3. Organizational Encoding: the process of categorizing information according to the
relationships among a series of items
Elaborative Encoding
How we remember something depends on how we think about it at the time.
22061823 | 6 to 1 odds | horse 8 | 2nd place| 3rd race
Semantic judgments: meaning of words is much better to use for memory than rhyme or visual
judgments
Actively relating new information to knowledge already in memory
Lower left part of frontal lobe; inner part of left temporal lobe
More activity here = more likely to remember
Visual Imagery Encoding
Simodes – Greek poet remembered dead people from the ceiling collapse by visualizing each person’s
chair around the banquet table.
Storing new information by converting it into mental pictures
Visual imagery encoding can substantially improve memory
Activates visual processing regions in the occipital lobe
Organizational Encoding
Process of categorizing information according to the relationships among a series of items
Peach, cow, chair, apple, table, cherry, lion, couch, horse, desk
Fruit Animals Furniture
peach, apple, cherry | cow, lion, horse | chair, table, couch, desk
Upper surface of left frontal lobe
Encoding of Survival-Related Information
Memory mechanisms that help us survive & reproduce should be preserved by natural selection
Survival encoding rate 1-5, moving 1-5, pleasantness 1-5; people remembered survival more.
Survival encoding calls on elements of all 3 levels of encoding
Storage: Maintaining Memories Over Time
Maintaining information in memory over time
Three Types of Storage:
1. Sensory Memory: holds sensory information for a few seconds or less
2. Short-Term Memory: holds nonsensory information for more than a few seconds but
less than a minute
3. Long-Term Memory: holds information for hours, days, weeks, years, indefinitely
Sensory Storage
Holds sensory information for 1-5 seconds
3 rows, 4 letters, remembered less than ½
Couldn’t encode in 1/20th of a second or did encode but forgot while recalling?
Could remember when asked about a specific row
Iconic Memory: fast-decaying store of visual information (1 second or less)
Echoic Memory: fast-decaying store of auditory information (5 seconds)
Short-Term Storage & Working Memory
Holds nonsensory information for more than a few seconds but less than a minute. (15-20 seconds)
Rehearsal: keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it (“re-entering”)
7 meaningful items at once can be remembered, give or take
Chunking: combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks
Working Memory: active maintenance of information in short-term storage
Includes subsystems that store and manipulate visual & verbal information, as well as an executive that
coordinates subsystems.
Central executive depends on regions in the frontal lobe
Long-Term Storage
Franco Magnani from Italy moved to San Fransisco and missed his village and painted it in perfect detail.
Holds information indefinitely