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Chapter 8

SOCIOL 4508 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder

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Lynette Martin

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Soc 4508
Twisted Minds: The Contribution of Mental Disorders
Chapter 8
I. The Personality Disorders
A. Personality disorders refers to lifelong patterns of thinking and behaving that
deviate significantly from cultural norms, is maladaptive, and despite this,
B. Antisocial Personality Disorder
1. About one-third of criminals meet the criteria
2. Three times more common in men than women
3. Must be at least 18 years old to be diagnosed
4. Psychopath Factor I affective-cognitive instability
a. Are more likely to be violent
b. Are less likely to improve in middle age
c. May actually get worse with traditional forms of treatment
d. Are on average more intelligent
5. Psychopath Factor II behavioral-social deviance
6. Psychopaths constitute 20 to 30% of prison population
C. Borderline Personality Disorder
1. Much more common in women than men
2. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) characterized by instability
and reactivity in mood, unstable interpersonal relationships and behavior
beginning in early adulthood
D. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
1. Onset may be immediate or delayed
2. When PTSD is chronic and untreated, an individual develops defensive
and distortive mechanisms for managing or coping with the symptoms
II. Disorders of Childhood
A. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
1. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) characterized by
either inability to focus attention by overactive and impulsive behavior,
or both
2. Much more common in boys than in girls, and it is found across cultures
3. More likely to engage in early substance use and to drop out of school
4. Genetic vulnerability
B. Oppositional Defiant Disorder
1. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) characterized by children that
argue repeatedly with adults, lose their temper, swear, and feel intense
anger and resentment
2. Relatively stable through adolescence
C. Conduct Disorder
1. Conduct disorder (CD) characterized by children who repeatedly
violate the basic rights of others by displaying aggression and sometimes
destroying others property, lying, cheating and running away from home
2. Much more common in males than in females
3. May occur as early as 5 years old
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