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Pennsylvania State University
CHEM 101
Mary Shoemaker

Chem 101 Chapter 11 11.2  Wavelength is the distance between two consecutive wave peaks o Represented by a lowercase lambda  Frequency is indicated by how many wave peaks pass a certain point per given time period  Another way to think of a beam of light traveling through space is a stream of tiny packets of energy called photons. 11.4  Ground state is the lowest possible energy state of an atom  Different wavelengths of light carry different amounts of energy per photon  The energy contained in the photon corresponds to the change in energy that the atom experiences  Energy levels of hydrogen are quantized, that is, only certain values are allowed  Energy levels of all atoms are quantized 11.5  Bohr constructed a model of the hydrogen atom with quantized energy levels that agreed with hydrogen emission results  Electrons do NOT move around the nucleus in circular orbits 11.6  In the Bohr model the electron was assumed to move in circular orbits  Wave mechanical model – the electron states are described by orbitals 11.7  Orbital- the probability map of an element  1s Orbital - the orbital the hydrogen’s lowest energy state (ground state)  Principle energy levels – the discrete energy levels and are labeled with integers o Each of these levels are subdivided into sublevels  Characteristic of orbitals is that as the level number increases, the average distance of the electron in that orbital from the nucleus also increases  An orbital is the potential space for an electron 11.8  Pauli Exclusion Principle – an atomic orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons, and those two electrons must have opposite spins 11.9  The most attractive orbital to an electron is always the 1s  The 1s orbital involves the space around the nucleus that is closest to the nucleus  As n increases the orbital becomes larger o The electron on average, occupies space farther from the nucleus  Electron configuration is also called electron arrangement  Orbital diagram, or box diagram, are represented in which orbitals are represented by boxes grouped by sublevel with small arrows indication the electrons  The arrow represents an electron spinning in a particular direction
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