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Pennsylvania State University
CHEM 101
Mary Shoemaker

Chem 101 Chapter 12 Notes  A bond as a force that holds groups of two or more atoms together and makes them function as a unit  Bond Energy is the energy required to break the bond  Ionic Compound results when a metal reacts with a nonmetal  Covalent bonding is the type of bonding we encounter in the hydrogen molecule and in many other molecules where electrons are shared by nuclei  Polar Covalent Bond is when the atoms are not so different that electrons are completely transferred but are different that electrons are completely transferred but are different enough so that unequal sharing of electrons results o A lower case delta is used to indicate a partial or fractional charge  Bond polarity is the partial positive and negative charges on the atoms  When different nonmetals react, a bond forms in which electrons are shared UNEQUALLY, giving a polar covalent bond  Electronegativity – the relative ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself  The polarity of a bond depends on the difference between the electronegativity values of the atoms forming the bond  Dipole Moment – a center of positive charge and a center of negative charge o Any diatomic (two-atom) molecule that has a polar bond has a dipole moment o Some polyatomic (more than two atoms) molecules also have dipole moments  In almost all stable chemical compounds of the representative elements, all of the atoms have achieved a noble gas electron formation  When metals and nonmetals react, the resulting ionic compounds are very stable o Large amounts of energy are required to “take them apart”  A cation is always smaller than the parent atom  A anion is always larger than the parent atom  Bonding involves just the valence electrons of atoms  The Lewis Structure is a representation of a molecule that show how the valence electrons are arranged among the atoms in the molecule  The most important requirement for the formation of a stable compound is that the atoms achieve noble gas electron configurations  Steps for writing Lewis Structures o Obtain the sum of the valence electrons from all of the atoms
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