EdPsy014 Chapter 10 Book Notes.docx

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Educational Psychology
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Raine Sperling

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Chapter 10: Motivation and Learning • Motivation –the process of initiating and sustaining behavior designed to reach a goal • Motivated students: o Have positive attitudes toward school and describe it as satisfying o Persist on difficult tasks and cause few management problems o Process information in depth and excel in classroom learning experiences o **Learn more than their less motivated peers • Extrinsic motivation – motivation to engage in an activity as a means to an end o Ex. Studying to get good grades • Intrinsic motivation- motivation to be involved in an activity for its own sake o Ex. Studying to understand the course content o Motivated by experiences that:  Present a challenge (meeting challenges is satisfying)  Promote autonomy (feel they have influence over and can control their own learning)  Evoke curiosity  Involve creativity and fantasy (ex. Fascination in Harry Potter or Sesame Street) • Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation are on separate continuum – you can be high in both, low in both, or high in one, low in the other. • Motivation to learn – students’tendencies to find academic activities meaningful and worthwhile and try to get the intended learning benefits from them Theoretical Views of Motivation • Behaviorist: Views learning/motivation as a change in observable behavior that occurs as a result of experience with the environment o Reinforcers (praise, comments on hw, and good grades) = motivators • Cognitive: focus on people’s beliefs, expectations and attempts to make sense of their experiences • Sociocultural: Focus on individuals’participation in social environments that value and support learning; the powerful role of social interaction o More motivated in in cooperative/supportive classrooms o More motivated for an activity if others are doing it o Motivational zone of proximal development – the match between a learning activity and learners’prior knowledge and experiences that is close enough to stimulate interest and perceived value in the activity but not so familiar that learners are satiated by it  Can’t be too trivial or too complex o Task = to design learning experiences that are familiar enough that they see their potential while still posing a challenge • Humanistic: Focus on the “whole person” and peoples’attempts to fulfill their total potential as human beings o Become “self-actualized” o Motivation requires understanding of thoughts, feelings, and actions o Unconditional positive regard – treating individuals as if they are innately worthy regardless of their behavior The Influence of Needs on Motivation to Learn • Need – an internal force or drive to attain or avoid a certain state or object • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs o Needs of the whole person are reflected in it – physical, social, and emotional o Deficiency needs – needs that energize people to meet them if they are unfulfilled  Survival, safety, belonging, self-esteem o Growth needs- needs in intellectual achievement and aesthetic appreciation that increase as people have experiences with them o Self-actualization – reaching one’s own full potential and becoming all that we are capable of being o Says that personal, social, and emotional needs always precede intellectual ones • The Need for Self-Determination – the need to act on and control one’s environment o Competence – the ability to function effectively in the environment  Evidence that knowledge and skills are increasing = most important factor in perceiving competence o Autonomy- independence and the ability to alter the environment when necessary  Giving choices increases perception of autonomy  Related to competence – as competence increases, so does perception of autonomy o Relatedness- the feeling of being connected to others in one’s social environment and feeling worthy of love and respect  Need for approval – the desire to be accepted and judged positively by others • The Need to Preserve Self-Worth – an emotional reaction to or an evaluation of the self o People have an innate need to accept themselves as they are o Some hide the fact that they tried or studied so thy can be perceived as high ability o Self-handicapping – used to protect self-worth  procrastinating, making excuses, anxiety, making a point of not trying The Influence of Beliefs on Motivation to Learn • belief – a cognitive idea we accept as true without necessarily having definitive evidence to support it. o Expectation – a belief about a future outcome  Influence on motivation is often described using expectancy x value theory – a theory that explains motivation by saying that learners will be motivated to engage in a task to the extent that they expect to succeed on a task times the value they place on the success  Past experience has a big
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