EdPsy014 Chapter 14 Book Notes.docx

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Pennsylvania State University
Educational Psychology
Raine Sperling

Chapter 14: Increasing Learning ThroughAssessment ClassroomAssessment • Classroom assessment – all the processes involved in making decisions about students’learning progress o Our observations of their written work, their answers to questions in class, and their performance on teacher-made and standardized tests o also includes performance assessments (ex. Watching 1 graders print or watching art students create a piece of pottery) • assessment for learning – assessment that is a continual, ongoing process designed to support and increase learning o an integral part of the teaching-learning process o Four functions of effective assessments:  Measuring current understanding  Increasing motivation to learn  Developing self-regulation  Measuring achievement • Diagnostic assessment – a form of assessment designed to provide information about students’prior knowledge and misconceptions before beginning a learning activity o Helps us provide scaffolding through their zones of proximal development • Assessments that increase motivation: o Are aligned with learning objectives o Focus on content mastery and improvement o Avoid social comparisons o Measure higher level learning o Include detailed feedback • Validity – the degree to which an assessment actually measures what it is supposed to measure o If they are aligned with learning objectives o Are INVALID if they are based on personality, appearance, etc. – often done unconsciously  Ex. Bad grade on an essay for messy handwriting • Reliability – the extent to which assessments are consistent and free from errors of measurement o Unreliable assessments cannot be valid because they give inconsistent information o Factors that detract from reliability:  Ambiguous wording on tests/quizzes, unclear directions, inconsistent scoring o Ways to increase reliability:  Sufficient # of items (quiz with 15 questions is more reliable than one with 5)  Clearly explain requirements  Identify scoring criteria in advance  Score assessments anonymously (ex. Student names on last page of test) • Shooter example: o Valid and reliable: bull’s-eye o Reliable but invalid: clusters shots, but not in bull’s-eye o Neither: scatters shots randomly Informal Assessment • Informal assessment – the process of gathering incidental information about learning progress and making decisions based on that information o Ex.Asking a series of questions to review what you’ve covered so far during an explanation o Ex. Circulating the room while students do math seatwork • Students’personal, written products can be a source of informal assessment info: o Response journals, personal diaries, learning logs • Informal Assessment is often unreliable  important decisions (like assigning grades) should not be based on it Formal Assessment • Formal assessment – the process of systematically gathering the same kind of information from every student and making decisions based on that information o Ex. Diagnostic pretest, homework assignments, unit test • Commonly occur in three forms: o Paper-and-pencil items (ex. Multiple choice and essay)  Selected-response formats – multiple choice, T & F, matching  Supply formats- completion, essay  Objective – scorers don’t have to make decisions about the quality of an answer (multiple choice)  Subjective – scorer judgment is a factor (essay)  Multiple choice- a paper-and-pencil format that consists of a question or statement, called a stem, and a series of answer choices that include one correct –or best- answer and a series of distractions • Stem – the beginning part of a multiple choice item that presents the item as a problem to be solved, a question to be answered, or an incomplete statement • Distractors- incorrect choices to a multiple-choice item o Should address students’likely misconceptions  Matching- a paper-and-pencil format that requires learners to classify a series of examples using the same alternatives • Effective if: o Content is homogeneous o Item includes more statements than possible alternatives (to prevent getting the right answer by process of elimination) o Students may use the alternatives more than once or not at all o Entire item should not include over 10 statements  True-false - a paper-and-pencil format that includes statements that learners judge as being correct or incorrect • Should be used sparingly • Guidelines: o Write more false than true o Make each item one clear statement o Avoid clues that allow students to answer correctly without fully understanding the content (ex. Using most or never  false)  Completion- a paper-and-pencil format that includes a question or an incomplete statement that requires the learner to supply the answer • Use sparingly • Disadvantages: o Difficult to phrase a question so that only one answer is correct o Usually measure recall of factual information  Essay- a paper-and-pencil format that requires students to make extended written responses to questions or problems • Three valuable contribut
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