EdPsy014 Chapter 15 Book Notes.docx

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Pennsylvania State University
Educational Psychology
Raine Sperling

Chapter 15: Standardized Testing and Learning Accountability and Standardized Testing • Standards – statements that describe what students should know or be able to do at the end of a prescribed period of study • Standards-based education- the process of focusing curricula and instruction on predetermined goals or standards • Accountability- the process of requiring students to demonstrate that they have met specified standards and holding teachers responsible for students’performance • High-stake tests – standardized tests used to make important decisions that affect students, teachers, schools, and school districts o Controversial Standardized Tests • Standardized tests – assessment instruments given to large samples of students under uniform conditions and scored and reported according to uniform procedures o Designed to answer questions that teacher-made assessments cant • Norming group- the representative group of individuals whose standardized test scores are compiled for the purpose of national comparisons o Different regions, cultural and ethnic groups, private and public schools, boys and girls • National norms – scores on standardized tests earned by representative groups of students from around the nation to which an individual’s score is compared • Serve three primary functions: o Assessment and Diagnosis of Learning  Were theirA’s due to high achievement or generous grading?  Diagnose strengths and weaknesses o Selection and Placement  Should they go to specialized or limited enrollment programs?  Admission to college or intoAP classes o Program Evaluation andAccountability  The quality of instructional programs • Norm-referenced standardized tests – standardized tests that compare (reference) a student’s performance with the performance of others o Scores represent a student’s performance compared to peers…does not tell teachers what the students actually know. o Allow location-to-location comparisons • Criterion-referenced standardized tests – standardized tests that compare performance against a set performance standard o Compare students’performance to a standard, so they provide information about mastery of specific learning objectives • Four kinds of standardized tests: o Achievement tests- standardized tests designed to assess how much students have learned in specified content areas  Typically include batteries of subtests administered over several days  Reflect a curriculum common to most schools – assess some, but not all goals of an individual school – good and bad  “one size fits all” approach o Diagnostic tests – standardized tests designed to provide a detailed description of learners’strengths and weaknesses in specific skill areas  Most common in primary grades  Usually administered individually and have more items and subtests with scores in more specific areas than achievement tests. o Intelligence tests- standardized testes designed to measure an individual’s capacity to acquire and use knowledge, to solve problems, and accomplish new tasks  Two Most Common: • The Stanford-Binet o Comes in a kit with materials and a manual o Types of items:  Nonverbal, verbal, nonverbal working memory, verbal working memory • The Wechsler Scales o Most popular o Preschool-primary, elementary, and adult populations o 2 main parts: verbal and performance o helpful in studying learners with disabilities, limited educational background, or who resist school-like tasks o Aptitude tests- standardized tests designed to predict the potential for future learning and measure general abilities developed over long periods of time  Commonly used in selection and placement decisions  Correlate highly with achievement tests  Two most common: SAT andACT • Eliminate teacher bias and differences in grading o Readiness tests- standardized tests designed to assess the degree to which children are prepared for an academic or pre-academic program  Most often used to assess kids’readiness for academic work in kindergarten or 1 grade  Have qualities of aptitude and achievement tests  Controversial: • Delays entry into K or 1 grade – negative effects on later development • Assess only cognitive factors and ignore characteristics that influence school success (like motivation and self-regulation) • Three kinds of standardized test validity: o Content validity- a test’s ability to accurately sample the content taught and to measure the extent to which learners understand it  Determined by comparing test content with curriculum objectives o Predictive validity- the measure of a test’s ability to gauge future performance  Quantified by correlating two variables (like a standardized test score and stud
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