EdPsy014 Chapter 13 Book Notes.docx

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Pennsylvania State University
Educational Psychology
Raine Sperling

Chapter 13: Learning and Effective Teaching • Effective teaching – instruction that promotes as much learning as possible in all students o 3 phases:  planning • thought processes • identify topics o what is important to learn? • Specify learning objectives o Learning objective – a statement that specifies what students should know or be able to do with respect to a topic o Cognitive domain – the area of learning that focuses on knowledge and higher cognitive processes, such as applying and analyzing o ex of general objective = know, understand, or apply o Bloom’s Taxonomy • Preparing and Organizing LeaningActivities o Task analysis- the process of breaking content into component parts and sequencing the parts. • InstructionalAlignment- the match between learning objectives, learning activities, and assessments • Standards- statements that describe what students should know or be able to do at the end of a prescribed period of study o (statements of objectives) o Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI)- a state-led effort to establish a single set of clear educational standards for English-language arts and math that states can share and voluntarily adopt  Implementing • Implementing instruction- the process of putting decisions made during planning into action • Thinking is involved, too, but it involves action • Essential teaching skills- basic abilities that all teachers, including those in their first year of teaching, should possess to maximize student learning o Like basic skills – the skills in reaching, writing, math, and technology that all people need in order to function effectively in today’s world o Teacher beliefs and behaviors o Organization  Prepare needed materials in advance  Start instruction on time  Make transitions quickly and smoothly  Develop well-established classroom routines o Review- a summary that helps students link what they’ve already learned to new info in the learning activity o Focus- the essential teaching skill teachers use to capture and maintain students’ attention and interest throughout the lesson o Questioning  Promotes involvement  Questioning frequency- refers to the number of questions teachers ask during a learning activity  Equitable distribution- the process of calling on all the students in a class as equally as possible whether or not they have their hands raised • Aka “cold call” • Reverse teachers’tendencies to call on high-achieving or more outgoing students more often than their peers • Makes everyone responsible for generating an answer and creates the expectation that all learners are capable of responding and should be paying attention  Prompting- an additional question or statement used to elicit an appropriate student response after a student fails to answer correctly  Wait-time- a period of silence, both before and after calling on a student that gives students time to think about their answer to a question • Ideally 3-5 seconds  Cognitive Levels of Questions • Low level: factual info • High level: applying knowledge to a new situation o Feedback – information teachers provide to students that helps students determine whether or not the knowledge they’re constructing is accurate and valid  Effective feedback: • Immediate (soon after learner response) • Specific • Provides corrective info for the learner • Positive emotional tone  Ex. Praise, Written feedback o Closure- a summary that occurs at the end of lessons  Helps organize learned info into a meaningful schema o Communication  Four characteristics of effective communication: • Precise language- teacher language that omits vague terms from explanations and responses to students’questions
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