PSYCH 100H Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning Chamber, Drug Tolerance

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Basic Processes of Learning
I. Basics
a. Learning any process through which experience at one time can alter an individual's behavior at a
future time
b. Experience any effects of the environment that are mediated by the individual's sensory systems
c. Behavior any subsequent behavior that is not part of the individual's immediate response to the
sensory stimulation during the learning experience
II. Classical Conditioning
a. Reflex simple, relatively automatic, stimulus-response sequence mediated by the nervous system.
i. Stimulus a particular well-defined event in the environment
ii. Response a particular well-defined behavior
iii. Habituation a decline in the magnitude of a reflexive response when the stimulus is
repeated several times in succession
b. Fundamentals of Classical Conditioning
i. Pavlov's Initial Discovery of Classical Conditioning his study with dogs for salivating
around food near mouth
ii. Procedure and Generality of Classical Conditioning
1. Conditioned Stimulus the stimulus that was "taught"
2. Conditioned Response the response that was "taught"
3. Unconditioned Stimulus normal stimulus before "teaching"
4. Unconditioned Response normal response before "teaching"
5. Classical Conditioning, or Pavlovian Conditioning is teaching the dog to salivate for
the bell, not the food
iii. Extinction of Conditioned Responses, and Recovery from Extinction
1. Extinction for dogs, without food following the bell, the dog no longer salivated
from the bell alone
2. Spontaneous Recovery the mere passage of time following extinction can partially
renew the conditioned response
iv. Generalization v Discrimination in Classical Conditioning
1. Generalization after conditioning, animals would show the conditioned response
not just to the original conditioned stimulus, but also to new stimuli that resembled
that stimulus
2. Discrimination Training the response to one is reinforced while the response to the
other is extinguished
v. Relevance to Emergency of Behaviorism science should avoid terms that refer to mental
entities such as thoughts, emotions, because they cannot be directly observed
c. What is Learned in Classical Conditioning
i. Stimulus-Stimulus Associations are Learned
1. The conditioned stimulus creates a mental representation of unconditioned stimulus
thus causing the response
ii. Stimulus-Response Theory
1. The new pathway is learned, now both stimuli cause the same response
iii. Learned Expectancy
1. Cognitive theories hypothesize, unobserved entities within the mind are used to
explain and predict behavior, contrary to the dictates of behaviorism
iv. Conditioning Depends on the Predictive Value of the Conditioned Stimulus
1. The conditioned stimulus must precede the unconditioned stimulus
2. The conditioned stimulus must signal heightened probability of occurrence of the
unconditioned stimulus
3. Conditioning is ineffective when the animal already has a good predictor
a. Blocking Effect the already conditioned stimulus blocks conditioning to the
new stimulus that it has been paired with
d. Conditioned Fear, Liking, Hunger, and Sexual Arousal
i. John B. Watson conditioned fear in humans
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