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# Lesson 1 Notes STAT 200

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School
Pennsylvania State University
Department
Statistics
Course
STAT 200
Professor
Mengzhao Gao
Semester
Spring

Description
STAT 200 Elementary Statistics Lesson 1 Gathering Data  Experiments deliberately impose treatment. This treatment is called a “factor.” There are multiple levels of factors.  Cluster random sample steps: 1. Divide population into a large number of clusters 2. Select a simple random sample of the clusters 3. Use subjects in those clusters as the sample  Stratified random sample steps: 1. Divide population into separate groups, called strata 2. Select a simple random sample from each strata 3. Combine the samples from all strata to form complete sample  Types of observational studies: 1. Sample survey- attempts to take a cross section of a population at the current time 2. Retrospective study- looks into the past 3. Prospective study- follows its subjects into the future  Case-control study- a retrospective observational study in which subjects who have a response outcome of interest (the cases) and subjects who have the other response outcome (controls) are compared on an explanatory variable  Block-set of experimental units that are matched with respect to one or more characteristics  Randomized block design (RBD)- when the random assignment of experimental units to treatments is carried out separately within each block  Matched pair-two observations for a particular subject  Population- entire group of individuals about which information is wanted  Sample- the part of the population actually examined to gather information  Simple random sampling (SRS)- a simple random sample of size N consists of N individuals from the population chosen in such a way that every set of N individuals has an equal chance of veing selected  Stratified random sampling- population is dived into important subgroups which are groups of individuals or subjects that are similar in a way that may affect
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