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Chapter 24

PHYS 241 Chapter 24 Notes.docx

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School
Purdue University
Department
Physics
Course
PHYS 24100
Professor
Oanas Malis
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 24—Capacitance Section 1—Capacitance • The ratio of charge Q to the potential difference V between the two conductors is called the capacitance of the capacitor o o Capacitance is a measure of the capacity to store charge for a given potential difference o This ratio does not depend on either Q or V, but only on the sizes, shapes, and relative positions of the conductors o SI unit is called a farad  1 F=1 C/V • A capacitor is usually charged by transferring a charge Q from one conductor to the other conductor, which leaves one of the conductors having a charge +Q and the other conductor having a charge –Q • A common capacitor is the parallel-plate capacitor, which uses two parallel conducting plates o In practice, the plates are often thin metallic foils that are separated and insulated from one another by a thin plastic film which is then rolled up, which allows for a large surface area in a relatively small space o Section 2—The Storage of Electrical Energy • When a capacitor is being charged, electrons are transferred from the positively charged conductor to the negatively charged conductor o Leaves the positively charged conductor with an electron deficit and the negatively charged conductor with an electron surplus o Transferring positive charges from the negatively charged conductor to the positively charged conductor could also charge a capacitor o • Electrostatic Field Energy o Energy stored in a capacitor as energy stored in the electric field o The energy per unit volume is called the energy density  Section 3—Capacitors, Batteries, and Circuits • Next we examine what happens when an initially uncharged capacitor is connected to the terminals of a battery o The potential difference between the two terminals of a battery is called its terminal voltage o The terminals of a battery are connected to dissimilar conductors called electrodes o Within the battery the electrodes are separated by a conducting liquid or paste called an electrolyte o Open-circuit terminal voltage—decrease in terminal voltage triggers the chemical reac
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