Friday, February 7, 201410:36 AM
I. The Scientific Method
a. Defining the Problem
b. Formulation the Hypothesis
c. Selecting a Research Design
d. Data Analysis
e. Interpreting Results & Drawing Conclusions
II. Value Neutrality
III. Testing Causal Theories (or how you demonstrate that one thing causes another thing)
b. Proper Time-ordering
c. Non-spuriousness &controlling for Other Factors
IV. Defining & Measuring Variables: Measurement Error Validity; Random Sampling;
Sampling Error vs. Bias
a. Bias Measurements
i. Might arise from how the researcher constructs or administers her/his questions.
1) Loaded or leading questions that pressure or steer subjects towards some
responses and away from other ones.
2) Poor match between question and the theoretical variable that it's
supposed to be measuring.
3) Poorly worded questions that confuse subjects or that different subjects
interpret in very different way