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Chapter 8-12

11:067:300 Chapter 8-12: Exam 3 Notes Integrative Physiology Dr. Bello

Animal Science
Course Code
N Bello

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Exam 3
Renal- 15 questions
Chapter 14:Cardiovascular Physiology= Everything Except embryonic development
Cardiovascular system- consists of heart, blood vessels, and blood
Capillaries- microscopic vessels that blood exchanges material with
interstitial fluid
Transports materials to and from all parts of the body
Substances transported by the cardiovascular system can be divided into
1. nutrients, water, and gases that enter the body from the external
2. materials that move from cell to cell within the body
3. wastes that the cells eliminate
Arteries- carry blood away from heart
Veins- return blood to heart
Right side of heart→ receives blood from tissues→ sends to lungs→
Left side of heart→ receives newly oxygenated blood from lungs→
pumps to tissues throughout body
Pulmonary circulation
Right atrium→ blood flows into right ventricle of heart→ pumped
through pulmonary arteries to lungs → From lungs blood travels to
left side of heart through pulmonary veins
Blood from lungs→ enters heart left atrium and passes into left ventricle→
Pumped out of left ventricle → Aorta→ branches into smaller arteries and
networks of capillaries
Pressure, Volume, Flow and Resistance
Pressure Gradients
Liquid and gases flow down pressure gradients from regions of high
pressure to low pressure
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Blood flows out of heart from (high pressure) to closed loop
vessels(low pressure)
The pressure of Fluid in motion decreases over distance
Pressure in a fluid is the force exerted by the fluid on it’s container
Hydrostatic pressure- fluid not moving, force exerted in all
Pressure changes in liquids without a change in volume
Pressure created by contracting muscle is transferred to blood.
High pressure blood flows out of ventricle into blood vessels,
displacing lower-pressure blood already in the vessels
= Driving pressure
Force that drives blood through blood vessels
Fluid pressure decreases when walls of a fluid-filled container
Ex. heart relaxes and expands
Ex. blood vessels dilate
Fluid pressure increases when walls of a fluid-filled container
Volume changes of blood vessels and heart are major influences
on blood pressure in CVS.
Blood Flows from Higher Pressure to Lower Pressure
Higher pressure= greater flow
Resistance opposes flow
Blood flowing through blood vessels encounters friction from the
walls of the vessels and from cells within the blood rubbing against
one another as they flow
Tendency of the cardiovascular system to oppose blood flow is
called the system’s resistance
An increase in the resistance of a blood vessel results in a
decrease in the flow through that vessel
Flow and resistance are inversely proportional. If
resistance increases, flow decreases vice versa
Resistance is influenced by the Length & radius of a tube and the
viscosity of the fluid.
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Decrease in blood vessel diameter= More resistance, less
Increase in blood vessel diameter =Less resistance, more
Flow of blood in CVS is directly proportional to the pressure
gradient in the system, and inversely proportional to the resistance
of the system to flow
Velocity depends on the flow rate and the cross-sectional area
Flow rate and velocity are not the same
Flow rate is the volume of blood that passes a given point in
the system per unit of time. "How much (volume) blood flows
Velocity is the distance of a fixed volume of blood that
travels in a period time. "How fast blood flows at a point"
V=Q/A Flow rate divided by cross-sectional area
Cardiac muscle and the heart
The heart has four chambers
Pericardium- tough membranous sac that encases the heart
A thin layer of clear pericardial fluid inside the pericardium
lubricates the external surface of the heart as it beats within the sac
Myocardium-cardiac muscle, covered by thin outer and inner layers
of epithelium and connective tissue
Heart Valves Ensure One-Way Flow in the Heart
Atrioventricular(btw left ventricles and atria) and semilunar
valves(btw ventricles and arteries) prevent backward flow of blood
AV valve-opening of atrium and ventricle
Chordae Tendinae and papillary muscles flowing blood pushes on
them to open valve. Also prevent blood flowing back into atria.
Right atrium and right ventricle= tricuspid valve
Left atrium and left ventricle= mitral/bicuspid valve
Pulmonary valve btw right ventricle and pulmonary trunk
Cardiac Muscle Cells Contract without Innervation
The heart can contract without a connection to other parts of the body
because the signal for contraction is myogenic(originating with the heart
muscle itself). Does not come from nervous system.
Autorhythmic cells-aka pacemakers are specialized myocardial cells that
set the rate of heartbeat.
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