01:119:116 Chapter Notes - Chapter 44: Apoptosis, Necrosis, Lysosome

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Published on 30 Oct 2014
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Rutgers University
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Biological Science
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01:119:116
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Chapter 44 The Immune System: Internal Defense
Immune Responses (Fig 44-1): body recognizes pathogens, toxins, other harmful agents and responds
to eliminate them:
Differentiate non-specific from specific mechanisms
Name the nonspecific immune mechanisms used by invertebrates. Provide an example of each.
Do invertebrates have any specific immune responses? Do they have immunological memory?
Vertebrate Immune response:
Nonspecific immune responses, include physical and chemical barriers; recognition by Toll-like
receptors; the actions of cells, such as phagocytes and natural killer cells; cytokines and the proteins
that make up the complement system; and the inflammatory response.
First-Line Defenses:
Physical barriers are a first line of defense the skin and saliva, respiratory and digestive tract
linings, nose hairs, stomach secretions, lysosomes how is this so and provide some examples
of each line of defense.
What are defensins, and how does lysozyme provide defense against pathogens? Which?
What are toll-like receptors and how do they facilitate pathogen destruction?
How do natural killer cells interact to provide defense against viruses and other pathogens?
What effects do these defenses have on the infected target cell to initiate apoptosis (Fig 44-2)?
Cytokines are signaling proteins and peptides that regulate interactions between cells
What kinds of interferons are produced by the defending cells and which cells produce
interferons?
What is tumor necrosis factor; how does it play a role in immune defense of cells?
Interleukins are produced by macrophages and lymphocytes to help regulate interactions with
other body cells. How do they mediate fever and inflammation?
Summarize the steps in the inflammatory process………..
What are chemokines?
Specific cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity (Fig 44-3):
Where are lymphocytes produce, where do they mature and where do they reside (are stored).
Which cells are involved in cell mediated and which in antibody-mediated immune responses?
Distinguish their roles in the immune response………………..
What is positive and negative selection? Why is it important for the lymphocyte population to
go through this selection process? What happens to the cells once the selection process has
been made?
What happens to an individual if they don’t have a thymus?
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Document Summary

Chapter 44 the immune system: internal defense. Immune responses (fig 44-1): body recognizes pathogens, toxins, other harmful agents and responds to eliminate them: Name the nonspecific immune mechanisms used by invertebrates. Nonspecific immune responses, include physical and chemical barriers; recognition by toll-like receptors; the actions of cells, such as phagocytes and natural killer cells; cytokines and the proteins that make up the complement system; and the inflammatory response. Physical barriers are a first line of defense the skin and saliva, respiratory and digestive tract linings, nose hairs, stomach secretions, lysosomes how is this so and provide some examples of each line of defense. Cytokines are signaling proteins and peptides that regulate interactions between cells. Interleukins are produced by macrophages and lymphocytes to help regulate interactions with other body cells. Summarize the steps in the inflammatory process Where are lymphocytes produce, where do they mature and where do they reside (are stored).