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Chapter 40

Ch. 40 Book Notes.doc

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Biological Sciences

Ch. 40 Book Notes Protection, Support, and Movement Invertebrate epithelium: • Forms cuticle outer covering • Secrete lubricants, adhesives, odors for communication, toxins for defense • Corals and mollusks: calcium carbonate • Earthworm: secretes lubricating mucus for locomotion Vertebrate epithelium: • Epidermis: outer layer of skin, waterproof, mature as they move out, produce keratin o Stratum bassale: deepest  Produce melanin: pigment cells  Cells divide and are pushed outward as other cells below are being produced o Stratum corneum: superficial • Dermis: o dense fibrous connective tissue o collagen fibers mainly (for strength and flexibility) o contain blood vessels that nourish the skin and sensory receptors for touch and pain and temperature o contain hair follicles, and sweat glands o rests on layer of subcutaneous tissue (composed of adipose tissue that insulates body) Skeletal system: • Hydrostatic: soft bodied invertebrates (cnidarians, flatworms, annelids, roundworms) o Made up of fluid filled cavities o Contractile cells in the outer layer are longitudinal o Contractile cells in the inner layer are circular • Exoskeleton: mollusks and arthropods o Lifeless shell o Provides protection, transmit forces o Mollusks: calcium carbonate shell o Arthropod: nonliving cuticle made of chitin o Shells molt, ecdysis • Endoskeleton: echinoderms and chordates o Consists of plates of shafts of calcium carbonate impregnated tissue (cartilage or bone) o Echinoderm: spins and plates of calcium salts embedded in body wall o Chordates:  Axial skeleton: skull, vertebral column, ribs, sternum • Skull: bony framework of the head • Vertebral column: supports body and bears its weight o Vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx o Cervical region, thoracic region, lumbar region, sacral region, coccygeal region • Rib cage: formed by sternum, thoracic vertebrae, ribs o Protects the internal organs of the chest o Supports the chest wall, preventing it from collapsing when diaphragm contracts  Appendicular skeleton: bones and limbs, pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle • Pectoral girdle: o Clavicles: collarbones o Scapula: shoulder blades • Pelvic girdle: loosely attached to vertebral column but muscles The Forearm: • Radius “long bone”: o Covered by periosteum (connective tissue) that can produce new layers of bone to increase diameter o Diaphysis: shaft of bone o Epiphysis: expanded ends of bone o Metaphysis: between D. and E., disappears at maturity o Bone marrow: central cavity  Yellow: consist mainly of fatty connective tissue  Red: produce blood cells o Compact bone: outer shell, dense and hard  Lies primarily near the surface of the bone, provides strength  Consist of osteon: interlocking spindle-shaped units • Within: osteocytes (bone cells), lucanae (cavities) o Lucanae arranged in Haversian Canals: concentric circles  Spongy bone: interior, provides mechanical strength • Consists of a net
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