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Chapter 45

Ch. 45 Book Notes

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Biological Sciences

Ch. 44 Book Notes Invertebrates: open (arthropods and mollusks) Some invertebrates: closed (annelids and echinoderms) Vertebrates: closed Vertebrate blood vessels: 3 main types of vessels: • Capillaries • Arteries • Veins • **artery enters organ --> divides into arterioles --> deliver blood to capillaries --> capillaries merge to form veins --> channel back to heart • • Evolution of vertebrate cardiovascular system: •Fish: 1 atrium, 1 ventricle •Amphibians: 2 atria, 1 ventricle, double circuit blood flow •Nonavian reptiles: double circuit blood flow, (2 atria, 2 ventricle) 4 chamber heart •Birds and mammals: higher developed circulatory system than nonavian reptiles • Vertebrate blood: • Plasma o Water o Salts o Proteins: help regulate distribution of fluid between plasma and interstitial fluid, and acid-base buffers  Fibrinogen: clotting. After clotting, remaining liquid is called serum  Globulins • Alpha: hormones and proteins that transport hormones • Beta: lipoproteins that transport fat and cholesterol. Proteins transport vitamins and minerals • Gamma: contain antibodies that provide immunity to diseases  Albumin • Red blood cells: transporting oxygen o Have nuclei o Biconcave shape for higher surface area o Produced in red bone marrow: vertebrae, breastbone, skull bone o Produces hemoglobin: oxygen-transporting pigment o Lifespan of 120 days o Production regulated by hormone erythropoietin (released by kidneys)  In response to decrease in oxygen **Anemia: deficiency in hemoglobin • Symptoms: internal bleeding, iron-deficiency, increased RBC destruction • White blood cells: defend the body against harmful bacteria o Granular leukocytes: large lobed nuclei and granules  Neutrophils: ingest bacteria and phagocytose dead cells  Eosinophils: the lysosomes contain peroxidase that degrades cell membranes of parasitic worms and protozoa. Common during allergic reactions  Basophils: allergic reactions. • Histamine: released in allergic reaction and injured tissue. Dilate blood vessels • Heparin: speed up fat removal after high fat meal. Help prevent blood clotting in blood vessels o Agranular leukocytes: round nuclei, indistinctive granules  Lymphocytes: produce antibodies  Monocytes: larges WBCs, phagocytose cells and remove toxic molecules. Infection • Macrophage: engulf bacteria, dead cells, debris • Dendritic cells: important in immune system. Help fight viral infection **Leukemia: various WBCs multiply and crowd developing RBCs and platelets, leading to anemia and impaired clotting. • Common death cause: hemorrhage in brain, infection • Treatment: chemotherapy, bone marrow transplant, radiation • Platelets: lack nuclei, not a whole cell (fragment of cytoplasm). Blood clotting o Blood vessel cut  platelets stick to rough edges of vessel  attract more platelets  become sticky, adhere to collagen fibers in vessel wall  form platelet plug / temporary clot **Hemophilia: clotting factor absent due to gene mutation o Damaged cell  Ca 2released from platelets  prothrombin  thrombin  fibrinogen  fibrin  form webbing clot from sticky threads Blood Vessels: Artery with blood arterioles  capillaries  merge into veins  blood back to heart **Artery- carries blood away from heart toward tissue ** Artery and Veins consist of endothelium, smooth muscle, and connective tissue **no gas or nutrient exchange through walls **metarterioles – directly meet arterioles to venules Heartbeat: Opening of calcium ion channels  SA node action potential (P WAVE) AV node
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