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United States (206,002)
01:119:115 (54)
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Chapter 53

Ch. 53 Book Notes

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Biological Sciences

Ch. 47 Book Notes Invertebrate digestion: • Cnidarians and flatworms: o Gastrovascular cavity: central digestive cavity with one opening • Free flatworms: secrete digestive enzymes on prey. Food ingested. Undigested food out through mouth. Digestive tract • Mucosa, submucaosa, muscle layer • Mouth o Teeth: incisors, canines, premolars, molars, enamel, dentin, pulp o Pulp cavity: contain blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves o Salivary glands: secrete salivary glands that contain enzyme salivary ← *Contains enzyme salivary amylase that breaks down carbohydrates ← Accessory glands: pancreas, liver, salivary glands • Secrete digestive juices into the digestive tract Esophagus: • Circular muscle fibers contract around bolus and push down • Longitudinal muscle fibers contract form beneath the bolus which shortens the tube • Gravity helps, but is not essential Stomach • Rugae: folds that allow for the stomach to expand • Parietal cells: o secrete HCL and intrinsic factor • Chief cells: o secrete pepsinogen and converts pepsin ← **helibacter pylori: causative factor of ulcers. Infects the mucus-secreting cells of the stomach lining, decreasing the protective mucus, which can lead to peptic ulcers or cancer • pylorus: stomach exit Small intestine: digestion of food and absorption of nutrients through wall • Duodenum: sight of chemical digestion, first portion of small intestine o Bile from liver and enzymes from pancreas are released and act on chyme • Jejunum • Ileum • Villi: to increase surface area for absorption of nutrients o Inside each villi are capillaries and lacteal (lymph vessel) o Absorption: simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport  After free fatty acids enter epithelia cells, they are reassembled as triacglycerols,  Packaged in chlyomicrons (protein-covered fat droplets) • Chlyomicronsenter lacteal, transport in lymph, enter blood • They transport fats to the liver and other tissues Hepatic portal vein: transport amino acids and glucose to liver Liver: • Vital functions: o Secrete bile that mechanically digests fats o Helps maintain homeostasis by removing or adding nutr
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