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Chapter 16

01:160:162 Chapter Notes - Chapter 16: Litmus, Weak Base, Equilibrium Constant

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Paul Kimmel

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Chemistry Textbook Notes 16.1-16.6
16.1 Batmans Basic Blunder
16.2 The Nature of Acids and Bases
- Acids have the following general properties: a sour
taste; the ability to dissolve many metals; the ability
to turn blue litmus paper red; and
the ability to neutralize bases
- Bases have the following general
properties: a bitter taste; a
slippery feel; the ability to turn
red litmus paper blue; and the
ability to neutralize acids
- Alkaloids are organic bases that are found in
plants that are often poisonous
16.3 Definitions of Acids and Bases
- According to the Arrhenius definition, a(n):
- Acid is a substance that produces H+ ions in
aqueous solution
- Base is a substance that produces OH- ions in aqueous solution
- The H3O+ ion is called the hydronium ion
- A strong acid completely ionizes in solution, whereas a weak acid only
partially ionizes
- We represent the ionization of a strong acid with a single arrow and that of a
weak acid with an equilibrium arrow
- HA represents a generic acid with the anion A-
- A strong base is one that completely dissociates in solution and a weak base
is analogous to a weak acid
- Unlike strong bases that contain OH- and dissociate in water, the most common
weak bases produce OH- by accepting a proton from water and ionizing water to form OH- according to the
general equation (where B is a generic
symbol for weak base):
- The Bronsted-Lowry definition focuses on the
transfer of H+ ions in an acid-base reaction
- Since an H+ ion is a proton- a hydrogen atom
without its electron- this definition focuses on
the idea of a proton donor and a proton acceptor
- Acid- Proton (H+ ion) donor (donates a proton to water)
- Base- Proton (H+ ion) acceptor (accepts a proton from water)
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- According to the Bronsted-Lowry definition,
acids (proton donors) and bases (proton
acceptors) always occur together
- Substances that can act as acids or bases are
- A conjugate acid-base pair are two
substances related to each other by the transfer of a proton
- A conjugate acid is any base to which a proton has been added, and a conjugate base is any acid from
which a proton has been removed
- Summarizing the Bronsted-Lowry Definition of an Acid-Base Reaction
- A base accepts a proton and becomes a conjugate acid
- An acid donates a proton and becomes a conjugate base
- Binary acids are acids containing hydrogen and only one other element
- The factors affecting the ease with which this hydrogen is donated (and therefore acidic) are the polarity of
the bond and the strength of the bond
- In order for HY to be acidic, the HY bond must be polarized with the hydrogen atom as the positive
- The stronger the bond, the weaker the acid (the more tightly the hydrogen atom is held, the less likely is
is to come off)
- Oxyacids are acids
containing hydrogen
bonded to an oxygen atom
that is bonded to another
- The factors affecting the
strength and polarity of the
bond are the
electronegativity of the
element Y and the number
of oxygen atoms attached to
the element Y
- The more
electronegative the
element Y is, the more it weakens and polarizes the HO bond and the more acidic the oxyacid is
- The greater the number of oxygen atoms bonded to Y, the stronger the acid
16.5 Acid Strength and the Acid Ionization Constant (Ka)
- If the equilibrium lies far to the right, the acid is strong. If the
equilibrium lies to the left, the acid is weak
- Monoprotic acids are acids containing only one ionizable proton
- Diprotic acids are acids containing two ionizable protons
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