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Department
Chemistry
Course
01:160:163
Professor
Professor Guerrea
Semester
Spring

Description
Chem 16222042013 062100 Chapter 13131 types of solutionsoa solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substancesoa solution consists of a solvent and one or more solutesosolutions in which water is the solvent are called aqueous solutionsosolutions can also be classified by the amount of solute dissolved relative to the maximum amount that can be dissolveda saturated solution is one that contains the max amount of solute that will dissolve in a solvent at a specific temperaturethis amount is called the solubilityan unsaturated solution is one that contains less solute than it has the capacity to dissolvea supersaturated solution contains more dissolved solute than is present in a saturated solution132 a molecular view of the solution processothe importance of intermolecular forcessolvationwhen the solute dissolves in the solvent molecules of the solute disperse and are separated from one another and become surrounded by solvent moleculesthe ease with which solute molecules are separated from one another and surrounded by solvent molecules depends on the relative strengths of three types of interactionssolutesolute interactionssolventsolvent interactionssolutesolvent interactionssolute solvent interactions are those that exist in a mixture of different substancesintermolecular forcesion dipolethe charge of an ion is attracted to the partial charge on a polar moleculedipole induced dipolethe partial charge on a polar molecule induces a temporary partial charge on a neighboring nonpolar molecule or atomion induced dipolethe charge of an ion induces a temporary partial charge on neighboring nonpolar molecule or atomthe overall solution formation process is exothermic when the energy given off wen the solvent and solute molecules mix is greater than the sum of energy required for the separation of solute molecules from one another and the separation of solvent molecules form one anotheroenergy and entropy in solution formationthe entropy of a system is a measure of how dispersed or spread out its energy islike dissolves liketwo liquids are said to be miscible if they are complete soluble in each other in all proportions133 concentration unitsomolarity is defined as the number of moles of solute divided by the number of liters of solutionomole fraction is the number of moles of solute divided by the total number of molesomolalitymolality m is the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1000 g of solventmoles of solute divided by mass of solvent in kgopercent by masthe percent by mass is the ratio of the mass of a solute to the mass of the solution multiplied by 100 percentmass of solute divided by the mass of solute plus the mass of solvent times 100ocomparison of concentration unitswe typically use molarity to express the concentrations of solutions for titrations and gravimetric analysesmole fractions are used to express the concentrations of gases134 factors that affect solubilityotemperaturethe solubility of a solid and the change in solubility over a particular temperature range vary considerablymost gaseous solutes become less soluble in water as temperature increasesopressurethe quantitative relationship between gas solubility and pressure is given by Henrys law which states that the solubility of a gas in a liquid is proportional to the pressure of the gas over the solutionckP where c is the molar concentration of the dissolved gas P is the pressure in atm of the gas over the solution and k is a proportionality constant135 colligative propertiesocolligative properties are properties that depend on the number of solute particles in solution but do not depend on the nature of the solute particlesothe colligative properties are vapor pressure loweringwhen a nonvolatile solute one that does not exert a vapor pressure is dissolved in a liquid the vapor pressure exerted by the liquid decreasesRaoults law states that the partial pressure of a solvent over a solution is given by the vapor pressure of the pure solvent times the mole fraction of the solvent in the solution
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