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Chapter 0

01:220:102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 0: Scatter Plot

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Constructing and Interpreting Graphs
A well-designed graph summarizes information with a simple visual display - the old adage “a picture is worth a
thousand words” might help you understand the popularity of visual images
A Study About Incentives
- Sadoff, Levitt, and List carried out an experiment and used incentives to change students’ behavior (how financial
reward affects student test scores), leads to a discussion of cause and effect
- Compare causal relationships between variables and consider correlations between variables
Experimental Design
- Want to lower the dropout rate
- Control group: no students received financial compensation for meeting special standards established by experimenters
- Treatment group with student incentives: students would receive $50 for each month the standards were met
- Treatment group with parent incentives: students’ parents would receive $50 for each month the standards were met
- Monthly standards:
- Did not have a D or F in any class during month
- Had no more than one unexcused absence during month
- Had no suspensions during month
Describing Variables
- Variable is a factor that is likely to vary or change
Pie Charts
- Pie chart: a circular chart split into segments to show the percentages of parts relative to the whole
Bar Charts
- Bar chart: bars of different heights or lengths to indicate the properties of different groups
- Easy to compare a single variable across many groups
- Independent variable: variable that the experimenter is choosing (x-axis)
- Dependent variable: variable that is affected by the experimental treatment
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