Literature, Art, and Thought

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History, European
Anthonydi Battista

Literature,Art, and Thought, c. 1000-1300 • Lots of intellectual development: more universities, law and medicine became serious intellectual disciplines, steady advances were made in science • Literature saw the flourishing of warlike epic poetry, the rebirth of lyric poetry, the emergence of romance, and the elaboration of richly imaginative fabliaux and fables • Two main types of drama o Mystery plays: enacted the Christian story from Creation to Final Judgment o Musical dramas of St. Hildegard of Bingen • Music developed • Architecture evolved from Romanesque to Gothic • Artistic images evolved toward a more evocative realism • Amedieval world that had once seemed filled with uncertainties, mysteries, and demons had changed into a world that seemed more knowledgeable—built by God, structured by logic, and capable of human understanding Byzantine and Islamic Influences • Byzantine culture continued to flourish o Preserved ancient traditions • Byzantine art was opulent • Libraries and schools in Constantinople • Byzantine learning spread through medieval Europe • Islamic learning and literature provided a cultural unity for the Muslims • Muslim scientists and philosophers were especially influential o Physician Ibn Sina produced impressive studies of medicine as well as a huge encyclopedia of human knowledge • Muslim, Jewish and Christian scholars worked together to translate Greek,Arabic, and Hebrew works into Latin Intellectual Trends • Universities were only for men Medicine • University of Salerno in the southern Italian peninsula was the chief medical school of medieval Europe • Simple superstition, good common sense, wise observation • Rudimentary methods • Dissections Roman Law • Canon law for papacy • Renewed study of Roman Law- exposed Western Christendom to a distinctly different legal tradition from that of the custom- based law • Bologna: Foremost center for the study of Roman law • Roman law spread across medieval Europe, encouraging legal codification, statutory legislation, and autocratic rule Philosophy • Medieval universities made no distinction between the study of philosophy and theology • The philosophers had 6 main resources: o Classical Greece- Plato andAristotle o Islamic Thought o Jewish Thought o Early Christian Theologians o Early Medieval Scholars o Scripture • Scholasticism: The dominant intellectual approach to the problems of the day • Scholastics focused on 2 controversies: The debate about the proper relationship between reason and revelation and the debate over universals The Relationship of Faith and Reason • All medieval scholastics believed in God and most were also committed to understanding God through reasoned thought The Debate Over Universals • Plato taught that a term such as “cat” describes not only particular cats but also a universal ideal that has a reality in itself— that individual cats are imperfect reflections of an archetypal or universal cat o Realists: Believed that universals were real • Roscelin: Rejected Plato’s theory, declaring that universals were not real o “Cat” was just a word o Those who followed Roscelin’s view were called nominalists, argued that universals had no reality apart from their nominas or names • 3rd point of view- Universals exist, but only though particular things or acts o People who followed thisAristotelian concept were called conceptualists Political Theory • John of Salisbury: Tyrannici
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