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Chapter 5

33:630:301 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Selective Exposure Theory, Reference Group, Marketing Buzz


Department
Marketing
Course Code
33:630:301
Professor
Stacy Schwartz
Chapter
5

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Chapter 5 Understanding Consumer and Business Buyer Behavior
I. 5.1 - Consumer Markets and Consumer Buyer Behavior
consumer buyer behavior the buying behavior of final consumers
individuals and households that buy goods and services for personal
consumption
consumer market all of the final consumers combined
A. Model of Consumer Behavior
Marketers can study actual consumer purchases to find out what they
buy, where, and how much
Environment
Buyer’s black Box
Buyer responses
Marketing Stimuli Other
Product Economic
Price Technological
Place Social
Promotion Cultural
Buyer’s
characteristics
Buyer’s decision
process
Buying attitudes and
preferences
Purchase behavior,
what the buyer buys,
when, where, and
how much
Brand engagements
and relationships
B. Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
Cultural, social, personal and psychological characteristics
a) Cultural Factors
Culture
- Definition the most basic cause of a person’s wants and
behavior
- Cultural influences on buying behavior vary greatly b/t
counties and countries
- Cultural shifts help discover new products that might be
wanted
Subculture
- Subcultures groups of people with shared value systems
based on common life experiences and situations
- Includes nationalities, religions, racial groups, and geographic
regions
- Ex) African-Americans
- Some companies develop special products, appeals, and
marketing programs for subcultural consumers
- Total market strategy the practice of integrating ethnic
themes and cross-cultural perspectives within their
mainstream marketing; goal is to appeal to consumer
similarities across subcultural segments
Social class
- Social classes society’s relatively permanent and ordered
divisions whose members share similar values, interest, and
behaviors
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- 7 Social Classes in America: upper upper class, lower upper
class, upper middle class, middle class, working class, upper
lower class, and lower lower class
- Measured by a combo of occupation, income, education,
wealth, and other variables
- Show distinct product and brand preferences in areas such as
clothing, home furnishings, travel, and leisure activity, financial
services, and automobiles
b) Social Factors
Groups and Social networks
- Membership groups groups that have a direct influence and
to which a person belongs
- Reference groups direct or indirect points of comparison or
reference in forming a person’s attitudes or behavior
- People are often influenced by reference groups to which
they don’t belong
- Aspirational group a group which the individual wishes to
belong
- Reference groups expose a person to new behaviors and
lifestyles, influence the person’s attitudes and self-concept,
and create pressures to conform that may affect the person’s
product and brand choices
- Word-of-mouth influence personal recommendations tend
to be more credible that those coming from commercial
sources; typically happens naturally
- Opinion leaders people within a reference group who,
because of special skills, knowledge, personality, or other
characteristics, exert social influences on others
- Buzz marketing enlisting/creating opinion leaders to serve
as “brand ambassadors” who spread the word about a
company’s products
- Online social networks online communities where people
socialize or exchange info and opinions
Family
- Marketers are interested in the roles and influence that family
has on the purchase of different products and services
Social Roles and Status
- A person’s position in a group can be defined in terms of both
role and status
- Role activities people are expected to perform according to
the people around them
- People pick products appropriate to their role and status
c) Personal Factors
Occupation
- Marketers try to find the occupational groups that have an
above-average interest in their products and services
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- A company can even specialize in making products needed by
a given occupational group
Age and Life-Style Stage
- Tastes in food, clothes, furniture, and recreation are age-
related
- Marketers often define their target markets in terms of life-
cycle stage and develop appropriate products and marketing
plans for each stage
- Different life-stage groups show different buying behaviors
Economic Situation
- Marketers watch trends in spending, personal income,
savings, and interest rates
- Value conscious times call for customer value creation
Life Style
- Definition a person’s pattern of living as expressed in his or
her psychographics
- Measures AIO dimensions Activities, Interests, and Opinions
- Lifestyle profiles a person’s whole pattern of acting and
interacting in the world
- Consumers don’t just buy products – they buy the values and
lifestyles those products represent
- Marketers look for lifestyle segments w/ needs that can be
served through special products or marketing approaches
Personality and Self-Concept
- Personality unique psychological characteristics that
distinguish a person or group
- Can be useful in analyzing consumer behavior for a certain
product or brand choices
- Brand personality specific mix of human traits that may be
attributed to a particular brand
- Self-concept people’s possessions contribute and reflect
their identities
d) Psychological Factors
Motivation
- A need becomes a motive when it rises up to a sufficient level
of intensity
- Motive a need that is sufficiently pressing to direct the
person to seek satisfaction
- Sigmund Freud people are largely unconscious about the
real psychological forces shaping their behavior. Buying
decisions are affected by subconscious motives
- Abraham Maslow human needs are arranged in a hierarchy,
from the most pressing at the bottom to the least pressing at
the top physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-
actualization
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