Real science rarely progresses in such an orderly way of the scientific method. 3 basic characteristics (aka the hallmarks of science) Modern science seeks explanations for observed phenomena that rely solely on natural causes. Ex: tycho"s careful measurements of planetary motion motivated kepler to come up with a better explanation for those motions. Science progresses through the creation and testing of models of nature that explain the observations as simply as possible. Ex: several competing models were compared and tested. A scientific model must make testable predictions about natural phenomena that would force us to revise or abandon the model if the predictions did not agree with observations. Ex: each model could make precise predictions about the future motions of the. Sun, moon, planets, and stars in our sky. Kepler"s model gained acceptance because it worked, while competing models lost favor because their predictions failed to match the observations.