Textbook Notes (367,756)
United States (205,876)
Psychology (295)
01:830:101 (138)
Nolan (1)
Chapter

General Psychology-Textbook Notes Complete

23 Pages
159 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
01:830:101
Professor
Nolan
Semester
Spring

Description
General Psychology Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception Sensation: the conversion of energy from the environment into a pattern of response by the nervous system Ex. Light rays striking you eyes Perception: the interpretation of that information Ex. Recognizing your roommate Module 4.1: Vision: The Structure of the Eye  Pupil: the adjustable opening in the eye  Iris: colored structure on the surface of eye surrounding pupil  Retina: layer of visual receptors covering the back surface of the eyeball  Cornea: rigid transparent structure on the outside of the eyeball  Lens: below the cornea, bends and varies in thickness to allow for the accommodation of objects in different distances  Fovea: greatest density of receptors, adapted for highly detailed vision Common Disorders of Vision:  Presbyopia: age related inability focus on nearby objects (decrease in lens flexibility)  Myopia: nearsightedness  Hyperopia: farsightedness  Glaucoma: increased pressure within eyeball; can impair vision  Cataract: cloudy lenses Visual Receptors  Located in the retina; back of eyeball; very sensitive  Cones (daytime vision): allows us to see colors; only 5% of total receptor but send much more information to brain  Rods (nighttime vision): no colors Three Prevailing Theories of Color Vision: The Trichromatic Theory  Receptors respond to 3 primary colors: blue (short), green (medium), red (long) o Blue has fewest cones  Problem: o Does not explain yellow o Does not explain afterimages: if you stare a something green; you see a red afterimage The Opponent- Processes Theory  We perceive color in terms of paired opposites  Problem: o After- images are not always predictable The Retinex Theory  We perceive color when the cerebral cortex combines various retinal patterns  Color Constancy: the tendency of an object to remain the same color under a variety of light conditions Color Deficiency  Discovered in 1600s o First clue that color perceptions is in the eyes, not the light  X-recessive: 8% of men, 1% of women: difficulty telling red from green Module 4.2: The Nonvisual Senses: Hearing:  Mammalian ear converts sound waves into mechanical displacements along a row of receptor cells How the Ear Works  Sound waves strike eardrum: cause it to vibrate o Connected to 3 tiny bones: hammer, anvil, and stirrup Types of Hearing Loss  Conduction Deafness: bones connected to the eardrum fail to transmit sound waves properly to cochlea (can be repaired surgically)  Nerve Deafness: disease, heredity, exposure to loud noises destroys either cochlea or efferent neurons (cannot be repaired surgically; hearing aids help) Module 4.3: The Interpretation of Sensory Information Perception of Minimal Stimuli:  Absolute sensory threshold: the intensity at which a given individual detects a stimulus 50% of the time: no clear border.  Signal detection theory: the study of people’s tendencies to make hits, correct rejections, misses, and false alarms.  Subliminal Perception: stimuli can influence our behavior even when they are so faint or brief that we do not perceive them consciously. Perception and the Recognition of Patterns  We recognize objects by past experience: faces, brightness and contrast.  We use a Feature-Detector approach: specialized neurons on the visual cortex respond to lines and angles: e.g horizontal vs. vertical, Jennifer Aniston.  Gestalt Psychology: means “configuration”. Unlike bottom-up process of feature detection, emphasizes top-down approach of contextual, experience based interpretation of percepts. See Gestalt figures and demonstrations on p. 129. Perceiving Movement  We use vestibular system to observe movement: we detect the movement of our own eyes.  We use background information: we perceive movement when an object moves relative to the background.  Induced Movement: illusion: background is moving, but we think it is an object in the foreground.  Stroboscopic Movement: still images flashed rapidly to simulate movement. Perceiving Depth Binocular cues:  Retinal disparity: the difference in the apparent position of an object as seen by the left and right retinas  Convergence of the eyes: degree to which they turn in to focus on a close object Monocular cues:  Experience: drawing of man aiming at far away elephant – if you’ve never seen a drawing, it’s a baby elephant.  Include object size, linear perspective, detail, interposition, texture gradient, shadows, lens accommodation, Motion parallax: closer objects move more than farther objects. Chapter 5: Nature, Nurture, and Human Development Module 5.1: Genetics and Evolution of Behavior: Genetic Principles  Chromosomes: strands of genetic material  Each human nucleus: 23 pairs of chromosomes, except egg and sperm cells, which have 23 unpaired.  Sections along each chromosome, genes, control the chemical reactions that direct development: e.g. height, hair color.  Genes are composed of DNA, which controls the production of proteins.  Dominant genes: a single copy is sufficient to produce effect (e.g. brown eyes)  Recessive genes: its effects appear only if the dominant copy is absent. Sex-Linked and Sex-Limited genes  You have two of almost all genes.  Exceptions: sex chromosomes, which determine whether you are male or female.  Mammals: X and Y: female has 2 X and male has 1 X and 1 Y.  Mother contributes 1 X, father contributes either an X or a Y.  Genes located on the X-chromosome are known as sex-linked or x-linked genes; an x-linked recessive gene is much more likely to show its effects in males (because men only have 1 X.)  Genes differ in effect based on hormones: facial hair, breasts. Estimating Heritability in Humans  Behavior is based on both heredity and environment.  Some variations in behavior may depend more on variations in genes than in the environment.  Heritability: an estimate of the variance within a population that is due to heredity.  Ranges from 1 to 0: 1 meaning that heredity controls all the variance, 0 indicating that heredity controls none of the variance.  Multiplier effect: slight genetic increase in height in a place where basketball is huge: Environment X heredity=huge advantage Genetic Principles  Chromosomes: strands of genetic material  Each human nucleus: 23 pairs of chromosomes, except egg and sperm cells, which have 23 unpaired.  Sections along each chromosome, genes, control the chemical reactions that direct development:e.g. height, hair color.  Genes are composed of DNA, which controls the production of proteins.  Dominant genes: a single copy is sufficient to produce effect (e.g. brown eyes)  Recessive genes: its effects appear only if the dominant copy is absent. Sex-Linked and Sex-Limited Genes  You have two of almost all genes.  Exceptions: sex chromosomes, which determine whether you are male or female.  Mammals: X and Y: female has 2 X and male has 1 X and 1 Y.  Mother contributes 1 X, father contributes either an X or a Y.  Genes located on the X-chromosome are known as sex-linked or x-linked genes; an x-linked recessive gene is much more likely to show its effects in males (because men only have 1 X.)  Genes differ in effect based on hormones: facial hair, breasts. Estimating Heritability in Humans  Behavior is based on both heredity and environment.  Some variations in behavior may depend more on variations in genes than in the environment.  Heritability: an estimate of the variance within a population that is due to heredity.  Ranges from 1 to 0: 1 meaning that heredity controls all the variance, 0 indicating that heredity controls none of the variance.  Multiplier effect: slight genetic increase in height in a place where basketball is huge: Environment X heredity=huge advantage Studies  Twin studies render evidence of heritability:  a. Monozygotic (identical) develop from a single fertilized egg: identical DNA. (misleading.)  b. Dizygotic: develop from 2 eggs and share only part of their genes, like any brother or sister.  Use: if a monozygotic twins have heavy similarity in some trait, we assume heritability (genetic influence) is high. If dizygotic twins have a heavy similarity in some trait, we assume genetic influence is not as high; may be as much environmental. (DNA is just not that similar.)  Monozygotic twins separated at birth: remarkable similarities, may be genetic (tendency to smoke, gain weight at the same age, hobbies, vocational interests, political beliefs, consumption of coffee, early-to-bed or early-to- rise….)  Adopted Children: Resemblance to biological parents in a trait implies a genetic influence. Resemblance to adoptive parents implies an environmental influence.  Sometimes misleading: disregards prenatal environment. E.g. adopted child with arrest record, biological mother with arrest record: may not be genetic: may have to do with biological mother consuming alcohol while pregnant. How Genes Influence Behavior  Moderate heritability for almost every single behavior.  There are Direct and Indirect Influences of heredity: Direct: Lactose tolerance or intolerance: genes influence systems outside the brain, and many populations lose the ability to digest milk (Asia). Some populations tend cattle by necessity, and the ability to digest milk is selected for. (parts of Africa)  Indirect: Genes for good looks: elicit a response from others, indirect consequence of genes: good-looking person is more confident. Interactions between Heredity and Environment  Interaction: an instance in which the effect of one variable depends on some other variable.  E.g.: Children with long-form serotonin reuptake receptors react with shyness to social support, but in children with short-form serotonin receptor, social support decreases shyness. Need one to evaluate the other.  Interaction: an instance in which the effect of one variable depends on some other variable.  E.g.: Children with long-form serotonin reuptake receptors react with shyness to social support, but in children with short-form serotonin receptor, social support decreases shyness. Need one to evaluate the other. Evolution and Behavior  You have the genes that you do because your parents survived long enough to reproduce.  Gradual change in the frequency of various genes from one generation to the next is called evolution.  Some genes may have been helpful in the past, less so now: e.g. the tendency to overeat (sugars and fats especially), an infants’ grasp reflex. The Fetus and the Newborn  Zygote: fertilized egg cell  Fetus: starts at 8 weeks after conception  Later, head and eyes turn toward sounds, brain alternates between wake and sleep.  Low birth weight correlates with increased cognitive issues, but not necessarily directly: depends on why birth weight was low (malnourished mother?) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome  Mother drinks alcohol during pregnancy  Stunted growth of head and body, malformations of the head, heart, and ears  Nervous system damage: seizures, hyperactivity, learning disabilities, mental retardation.  The more alcohol consumed, the greater the damage.  Alcohol interferes with glutamate: excitatory neurotransmitter. Constant excitation is required for neuronal development. Getting Started in Life  Resilience: Despite low birth weight, alcohol abuse by mother, poverty, racism or prejudice, some at-risk children overcome odds and succeed.  Appears to be a function of heredity, temperament, education, supportive relatives and friends.  “Initial Conditions” are inportant, but behavior depends on interactions of heredity and environment. Module 5.2: Cognitive Development Infancy  Researchers rely on measurable responses, like eye and mouth movements.  William James: to an infant, the world is “buzzing confusion, full of meaningless sights and sounds.”  Less confusing than once thought: Even as early as 2-days old, infants spend more time looking at drawings of human faces than at drawings of other things.  They look at right-side up faces and female faces longer. Infants Hearing  Infants suck more vigorously when aroused, and certain sounds arouse them.  Infants become habituated to sounds that initially excite them.  Dishabituation occurs when a different sound interrupts.  This is how investigators determine whether infants are distinguishing between sounds. Infants Learning and Memory  One study allowed infants to turn on a tape recording of a woman’s voice by sucking at certain times or rates.  As early as 3 days old, infants worked harder to turn on a recording of their own mothers’ voice. Research Designs for Studying Development  Cross-Sectional: compares groups of individuals of different ages at the same time  Longitudinal Designs: Follows a single group of individuals as they develop. Takes years; same people are not always available.  Selective Attrition: the tendency for certain kinds of people to drop out of a study: e.g. men, as they age, will “drop out” before women (they die sooner.)  One problem is teasing out effects of age vs. culture: e.g. a group of 20 year olds are liberal: thirty years later they are mostly conservative: age or culture Sequential designs  Researchers start with groups of people of different ages, studied at the same time, then study them again at one or more later times.  Cohort Effects: People who grew up in the Depression Era: no technology, very little free time, college was a luxury. Very different people from those who grow up today; age-cohorts are people who grow up in the same time period. Jean Piaget’s View of Cognitive Development  The effect of any experience depends on someone’s maturity (Jean Piaget: 1896-1980)  Children have qualitatively different thought processes from adults.  Behavior is based on Schemata (plural of schema.) an organized way of interacting with others: e.g babies have a grasping schema and a sucking schema; add more as time goes on.  Assimilation: applying an old schema to new objects or problems. (i.e. a child observes that moving things are alive; sun and moon “move” , must be alive also.  Accomodation: modifying an old schema to fit a new object or problem: “only living things move on their own: exceptions” (the sun and moon may not be alive.)  Infants shift back and forth between assimilation and accomodation: Equilibration is the establishment of balance between the two = intellectual growth. Piaget’s 4 Stages of Intellectual Development  The sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years.)  The preoperational stage (just before 2 to 7 years.)  The concrete operational stage (from about 7-11 years.)  The formal operations stage (from about 11 years onward.) Infancy: Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage  Sense of permanence: Show an infant a toy, then hide it. Infants don’t attempt to find it. Presumably, to them it no longer exists. Some concept of permanence as time goes by.  Sense of self: Put unscented blush on a baby’s nose, then show it a mirror. Under 18 months, the baby will reach out to the mirror. Over 18 mos., the baby will touch his/her own nose. Early Childhood: Piaget’s Preoperational Stage  Understand permanence, but still can’t grasp some contents: two year olds will deny their brother has a sibling, they can’t grasp that their mother is someone’s daughter.  Egocentrism: a young child sees the world as centered around himself or herself and cannot easily take another person’s perspective.  Theory of Mind: when a child begins to understand what other people know, and that each person knows things that others don’t.  Distinguishing Appearance from Reality: sponge/rock example. Looks like a rock, it is a rock. Looks like a sponge, it is a sponge.  Can tell some reality from fantasy: they play make-believe.  E.g.: Scale model of house: toy in “same place” - 2 ½ year old search haphazardly. 3 year olds go to correct place.  Conservation: don’t understand that objects conserve properties such as mass, length, volume, number: pour water into a taller glass, child will say there is less water. Later Childhood and Adolescence: Piaget’s Stages of Concrete Operations and Formal Operations  Stage of Concrete operations: children perform mental operations on concrete objects but still have trouble with abstract or hypothetical ideas. E.g.: move a 4-mile high mountain of whiooed cream? Older children enjoy the challenge, younger children complain it’s a silly question. Or, “third eye” question.  Stage of Formal Operations: adolescents deal with the abstract and hypothetical. Logical, deductive reasoning, systematic planning. (age 11- sometimes not reached.) Are Piaget’s Stages Distinct?  He thought so: caterpillar/butterfly.  Modern researchers disagree; if this were the case, then while a child was in a given stage, he/she would always perform at that level.  In fact, children fluctuate.  —Vygotsky: zone of proximal development: the difference between what a child can learn on their own vs. with adult help; “scaffolding.” Developing Cognitive Abilities  Adults sometimes slip into “childlike” ways of thinking; applying old patterns, inability to accept new information.  Awareness of the stages of development, and application of skills (sometimes consciously) can aid development even in adulthood. Module 5.3: Social and Emotional Development Infancy and Childhood  John Bowlby’s attachment: a long term feeling of closeness toward another person  “Good Attachments” = security and safety (infants) “Strange Situation” (Ainsworth, 1979)  Baby and mother enter a room with many toys. Stranger enters. Mother leaves, then returns. Then both stranger and mother leave. Then stranger returns, finally, mother returns. Observer watches through 2-way mirror.  a) Securely attached (12-18mos old): Interacts with mother, shows her toys, cries briefly when she leaves, interacts with her when she returns, then goes back to playing.  b) Anxious: Doesn’t really play with toys, clings to mother, cries profusely when she leaves, clings when she returns. Fearful of stranger.  c) Avoidant: Infant shows little interest in mother in general.  Disorganized: Fearful and affectionate, but more fearful. Alternates between approach and avoidance Social Development in Childhood and Adolescence  Friendships begin to play an important role.  Adolescence begins with puberty.  Early adolescence: more conflict with parents than late adolescence.  Risk-taking behavior The Personal Fable of Teenagers (Elkind)  Other people may fail to realize their life ambitions, but I will realize mine.  I understand love and sex in a way my parents never did.  Tragedy may strike other people but probably not me.  Almost everyone notices how I look and dress. Adulthood  “Turning points” are more self-directed: marrying, having children, switching jobs, etc.  Behavioral changes are situational rather than learned.  Young adulthood: struggle, stress,achievement.  Middle adulthood: acceptance, less day-to-day stress. (midlife transitions) Old Age —Around age 65: Erikson’s “ego integrity” —Physical activity correlates with mental ability —Happiness depends on a.decisions made while younger b.Treatment by others (often cultural) c.Ability to determine outcomes (control) The Psychology of Facing Death  Terror-management theory: we cope with our fear of death by avoiding thoughts about death and by affirming a world view that thet provides self- esteem, hope, and value in life.  We become more religious, patriotic, and rigid in upholding customs.  Sometimes become hostile to people who disagree, or who do not uphold our beliefs. Social and Emotional Issues Through the Life Span  Erikson’s model shows that each stage builds on the last.  Life is a continuum; happiness in each stage depends on decisions made in the last. Module 5.4: Diversity, Gender, Culture and Family Gender Influences  Major differences between men and women are first anatomical; certain brain regions are proportionately larger in each gender.  Men throw harder and get into more fights (Hyde, 2005).  Boys are active, girls have more self-control (Else-Quest et al 2005).  Men help more in short-term situations while women help in long-term nurturing situations. (Eagley and Crowley, 1986)  Women are better at interpreting non-verbal signals (ambiguous smiles – men example.)  One study showed that women do not talk more than men. Sex Roles and Androgyny  Some sex roles are built-in (breastfeeding, physically demanding jobs) but many are cultural (firebuilding, basket-weaving.)  Status of culture (peace or war) determines relative status of men.  Peace may come, but status remains.  Androgyny implies equal share of male and female traits: not always a positive outcome. Reasons Behind Gender Differences  As mentioned, partly biological.  Also, boys and girls are treated differently from a very young age: Mothers converse with 6-9 month old daughters, but give 6-9 month old sons (gentle) commands. (“come here”)(Clearfield & Nelson, 2006.)  Museum study: conversational differences between parents and sons and parents and daughters revealed startling differences. (Crowly et al, 2001.)  Cultural and Ethnic Influences  Culture dictates major modes of behavior: Western cultures favor “indvidualism” while some Asian cultures value “collectivism.”  Biculturalism and Biracialism: partial identification with 2 cultures or 2 races.  Bilingual children may begin with problems at school  Upside: in many places in the US, bicultural youth are less likely to abuse drugs: perhaps less susceptible to peer pressure.  In the U.S., biculturalism or biracialism currently seems to render problems with self-labeling. The Family  Birth order: doesn’t make much difference. Children from families of larger size tend to have slightly lower IQ than children of families of smaller size.  In families of similar size, birth order makes little or no difference. Effects of Parenting Styles  Authoritative Parents: High standards, impose controls, also warm and responsive: adjust limits when appropriate.  Authoritarian Parents: Set firm controls, but emotionally more distant. Set rules without explanations.  Permissive Parents: Warm and loving but undemanding  Indifferent or Uninvolved Parents: little time with children; provide only the basic necessities.  Studies differ: Some say parenting style is dictated by children, who are genetically predisposed to their own personalities and unaffected by parenting styles. (Harris, 1998) Other factors  Parental Employment: Meta-analysis shows that parental employment (both parents working vs. one parent at home) has no effect on future success UNLESS full-time day care is used for the entire first year; problems may be related to other factors.  Nontraditional families: Single mothers with adequate income and no recent divorce: similar outcomes to two-parent households.  a. Children brought up in gay and lesbian households seem to develop about the same as those in traditional families.  b. More research is needed: samples are small (Kalat.) Parental Conflict and Divorce  Children of divorced parents respond differently by age: elementary children are most affected emotionally, but teenagers tend to suffer academically (age when parents divorce.)  Some show little or no effect, some show exaggerated effect. For some, effect is delayed.  Does not imply parents should stay together for the kids: Children of parents who fight or show much conflict tend to be nervous, sometimes violent, and have trouble sleeping through the night. Chapter 8: Cognition and Language Research in Cognitive Psychology  Cognition means thinking and using knowledge.  Difficult to discover people’s thought processes by asking: people will explain thought processes they didn’t have (“more attractive girl” example)  Research has to be done using non-subjective tests: e.g. timed responses: delay in recognition of objects corresponds with degree of angle away from original. Attention  Attention is your tendency to respond to and remember some stimuli more than others at a given time.  Bottom-up process: distraction from peripheral stimulus.  Top-down: deliberate shifting of one’s own attention: THIS: either focus on the letters or the color; different regions of cortex (language or color) Preattentive vs. Attentive Process  Nude guy at a party vs. nude guy at a nudist beach: context  Very easy to spot the nude guy at a party: preattentive process  Find a specific nude guy at the nudist beach: much more difficult – requires attention: attentive process. (Where’s Waldo) The Attention Bottleneck  Too many objects requiring attention diminish attention to each.  Despite thinking we can do 2 things at once, we can only concentrate on, and plan one.  e.g. walking and chewing gum, hearing a tone and being asked to determine its key, then 1 sec. later being asked to identify a number flashed on the screen. (stroop test) The Stroop Effect  The tendency to read the words instead of saying the colors.  Can be done better if:  Blur vision  Say the colors in a different language  Regard the color words as meaningless Change Blindness  Changes are not noticed if they occur slowly or attention is focused elsewhere.  To detect small changes in a scene, you use attentive process.  Attention-Deficit Disorder  ADD - Attention Deficit Disorder, is characterized by easy distraction, impulsiveness, failure to follow through on plans.  ADHD – Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder – the same, except there is also “fidgetiness:” inability to sit still.  Extremely high variability in symptoms: most people perform well enough, their “attentional blink” is longer: more easily distracted. Tasks sensitive to ADD  Choice-Delay:
More Less

Related notes for 01:830:101

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit